The Seventy Week Prophecy

The Seventy Week Prophecy

The section which follows is a chapter from Fred P Miller’s book, Revelation: a Panorama of the Gospel Age
9:1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;

There are good reasons to conclude that this Darius is the same person under whom the Temple was rebuilt and rededicated from 519 to 515 B.C. (Unknown to Daniel, the restart of the building under Joshuah and Zerubbabel was only a matter of months away.)

The questionable conclusion that Cyaxares, the King in whose behalf Cyrus was supposed to be acting, is the true “Darius the Mede” is gendered by a faulty interpretation of Dan. 5:31. That is, that Dan. 5:31 gives Darius as the immediate successor of Belshazzar. (See below under “Other Evidence.)

Identification of the Darius mentioned here with Cyaxares II, a Median king, is based on conjecture. Only an assumption, with no historical evidence, links the name “Darius” with Cyaxares. In fact the very existence of Cyaxares II is in question! * Cyaxares II, who is conjectured to have commissioned Cyrus and therefore is thought to have succeeded Belshazzar by proxy, may have never existed.

He was placed in the Median dynastic record with only questionable evidence to support his existence because some Bible commentators thought he is needed between Belshazzar and Cyrus to make Dan. 5:31 understandable.

There is no historical evidence at all to support the idea that Cyrus was anything but sole king or that he shared the sovereignty with anyone. Herodotus gives a lengthy and detailed account of Cyrus’ overthrow of the Median king, Astyages, the supposed father of, the probably nonexistent, Cyaxares II. He details Cyrus’ birth by Astyages’ daughter. (Herodotus. I:92) (For parentage See Also)

He says plainly that Cyrus dethroned Astyages (I:73) and details the armed overthrow which was long before the fall of Babylon. He states plainly that Astyages had no son. (I:109) He says Astyages was kept after his defeat, until his death, in the court of Cyrus. (I:130) Herodotus gives the detailed history of all Median Kings from the first king Deioces, who begat Phraortes, who begat Cyaxares who begat Astyages, whose throne Cyrus took in a decisive battle.

Cyrus is said to have ruled as a Median king for 29 years, (I:215) however he only survived the fall of Babylon by 5 years. There is only poor evidence that any ruler ruled between the deposed Astyages and Cyrus. The insertion of Cyaxares II is not based on history but partly on a need to harmonize Dan. 5:31 which appears to say that Darius succeeded Belshazzar, while other scriptures and historical evidence make Cyrus the successor.

Bel and the Dragon This apocraphal book was written (probably in Greek, during the inter-testament period and is a part of the Greek Septuagint translation and the Theodotian version added to the Book of Daniel. It makes a historical testimony to the succession of Cyrus. The first verse is:
“When King Astyages was laid with his fathers, Cyrus the Persian received his kingdom.”
There is no mention of a pseudo Cyaxeres II between Cyrus and Astyages. Thus this book assumes that Cyrus succeeded Astyages which is correct. There is no Hebrew or Aramaic text of this apocraphal book added to the Old Testament canon.

One answer, but not the best, as to why Cyrus, Cambyses, and Pseudo-Smerdis who ruled between Belshazzar and Darius Hystaspis are left out in Dan. 5:31 is simple. Darius Hystaspis** is the actual historical dynastic successor. The reason that Cyrus and others up to Darius Hystaspis are omitted is because Cyrus established no dynasty. He had no hereditary successor.

A confusing period began posthaste after the demise of Belshazzar with the death of Cyrus following shortly, (within 5 years) and that was followed almost immediately by the death of his inept son, Cambyses, which was followed by the misrule of the usurper, the false Smerdis, who was overthrown by Darius.

In this light Dan. 5:31 makes sense, that is, that Belshazzar was followed by Darius as the first ruler who actually restored dynastic stability to the world order. The dynasty of Darius lasted until it was replaced by Alexander of Macedon.

Objection is also made that Darius, under whom the Temple was completed and dedicated, is called son of Hystaspis by Herodotus while here in Dan 9:1 he is called son of Ahasuerus. But Ahasuerus is a hereditary name, much like Pharaoh, and Hystaspis could easily have carried the title Ahasuerus by which his grandson (the great Xerxes son of Darius Hystaspis) was called. (See Esther 1:1) Even critics of this view agree that Darius Hystaspis was of royal lineage

The name, Darius the Mede, could easily have been ascribed by Daniel to Darius Hystaspis who was related to the Median royal family. In the same way Cyrus was born to a Median princess and raised in Media until he was about 12, yet he is called Cyrus the Persian. Beside “The Persian” Herodotus also calls Cyrus “King of the Medes.” (I:205)

Dan. 11:1-5 seems to say that there would be four kings from Darius the Mede to Alexander. Alexander must be the one meant in verse 4. It is difficult to harmonize this passage but it more readily fits the period from Darius Hystaspis to Alexander than from the supposed Cyaxares to Darius Hystaspis. The latter is the assumption of some earlier commentators.

Dan. 1:21 does not mean Daniel died in the first year of Cyrus but simply that he continued in Nebuchadnezzar’s dynastic government through the whole of the Babylonian period. He was still alive in the first year of Darius Hystaspis, when the Temple foundations still lay unbuilt upon.

The best answer lies in other evidence: In the Masoretic and Septuagint texts Dan. 5:31 is the first verse of chapter six. A reading of the text shows that this is the natural and correct division. Verse 31 therefore is not a completion of verse 30 which tells that Belshazzar died that night.

Verse 30 completes one narrative and verse 31 starts another. Darius is introduced as the leading character of the next narrative which is properly separated from the last and it is not meant that he “took the kingdom” the same night Belshazzar died.

“Took” the kingdom: The word “qibel” does not mean conquer or grab but should be translated “received.” It would ordinarily be used of one to whom the kingdom had been passed down. The original text does not intend the meaning that Darius “conquered” Babylon from Belshazzar.

That erroneous meaning is derived from misplacing verse 31, moving it from the beginning of chapter six to the place it now occupies in the English text.

120 Provinces into which Darius divided his kingdom refer more easily to Darius Hystaspis than to someone in Media who preceded Belshazzar or to the divisions in a single province made by Gobrius, a petty official appointed by Cyrus, as others propose. Any historically literate person recognizes that the 120 provinces speak of the Medo-Persian Empire after it was thus divided by Darius Hystaspis.

The Prayer: Internal evidence also points to Darius Hystaspis. The intensity of the prayer following indicates that he appeared after Cyrus, not before the expiration of the seventy years. Daniel would not have prayed so earnestly for God to do His part if the seventy years had not yet expired.

Other internal evidence makes it certain that he is the Darius who ascended the throne after Cyrus died; if so, with the interval of Cambyses and the usurper, false Smerdis, (see Herodotus Book 3:66-79) it would be almost twelve years after Daniel supposed the desolations of Jerusalem should have been accomplished that he prayed this prayer.

9:2 In the first year of his reign I Daniel understood by books the number of the years, whereof the word of the LORD came to Jeremiah the prophet, that he would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.
By books: Jeremiah 25:11, “This whole land shall be a desolation and an astonishment, and these nations shall serve the king of Babylon seventy years.”

Daniel was taken captive in 606 B.C. and the decree by Cyrus, ending the captivity and sending the return under Zerubbabel, was in 536 accomplishing exactly 70 years.

This decree is found in both the last chapter of II Chronicles and the first chapter of Ezra. The frustration indicated in Daniel’s prayer is brought on because that date was, to him, in the past by up to twelve years and Jerusalem was still desolate.

Seventy Years: By Daniel’s reckoning it would be more like 85 years since the desolation began, thus his concern for God to do what he had promised and the search for cause in the sins of his people and himself. See note on verse 17 below.

9:3 And I set my face toward the Lord God, to seek by prayer and supplications, with fasting, and sackcloth, and ashes:

9:4 And I prayed to the LORD my God, and made my confession, and said, O Lord, the great and dreadful God, keeping the covenant and mercy to them that love him, and to them that keep his commandments;

9:5 We have sinned, and have committed iniquity, and have done wickedly, and have rebelled, even by departing from your precepts and from your judgments:

9:6 Neither have we listened to your servants the prophets, which spoke in your name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers, and to all the people of the land.

9:7 O Lord, righteousness belongs to you, but to us confusion of faces, as at this day; to the men of Judah, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to all Israel, that are near, and that are far off, through all the countries where you have driven them, because of their trespass that they have trespassed against you.

9:8 O Lord, to us belongs confusion of face, to our kings, to our princes, and to our fathers, because we have sinned against you.

9:9 To the Lord our God belong mercies and forgiveness, though we have rebelled against him;

9:10 Neither have we obeyed the voice of the LORD our God, to walk in his laws, which he set before us by his servants the prophets.

9:11 Yes, all Israel have transgressed your law, even by departing, that they might not obey your voice; therefore the curse is poured upon us, and the oath that is written in the law of Moses the servant of God, because we have sinned against him.

9:12 And he has confirmed his words, which he spoke against us, and against our judges that judged us, by bringing upon us a great evil: for under the whole heaven has not been done as has been done upon Jerusalem.

9:13 As it is written in the law of Moses, all this evil is come upon us: yet made we not our prayer before the LORD our God, that we might turn from our iniquities, and understand your truth.

9:14 Therefore has the LORD watched upon the evil, and brought it upon us: for the LORD our God is righteous in all his works which he does: for we obeyed not his voice.

9:15 And now, O Lord our God, who has brought your people forth out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand, and has gotten you renown, as at this day; we have sinned, we have done wickedly.

9:16 O Lord, according to all your righteousness, I beseech you, let your anger and your fury be turned away from your city Jerusalem, your holy mountain: because for our sins, and for the iniquities of our fathers, Jerusalem and your people are become a reproach to all that are about us.

9:17 Now therefore, O our God, hear the prayer of your servant, and his supplications, and cause your face to shine upon your sanctuary that is desolate, for the Lord’s sake.

9:18 O my God, incline your ear, and hear; open your eyes, and behold our desolations, and the city which is called by your name: for we do not present our supplications before you for our righteousness, but for your great mercies.

9:19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, hearken and do; defer not, for your own sake, O my God: for your city and your people are called by your name.

This prayer: This is probably the most insistent and pleading prayer in the whole Bible outside of Gethsemane.

To the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and to all Israel, that are near, and that are far off, verse 7: There are those who insist on a Median Empire between the Babylonians and Persians. We have explained that the reason for this confusion is caused by trying to harmonize Daniel 5:30, 31 which seems to make an intermediate person, either Gobrius or Cyaxares II rather than Cyrus, the successor to Belshazzar.

Please note there would have been no men living in Judah nor would there have been “inhabitants of Jerusalem” if this prayer is dated at 538 B.C. which is two years before the decree of Cyrus.

Commentators knowing this work very hard at explaining differently what appears obvious, that is, that Daniel was praying for a city then inhabited but in very poor condition with a desolate sanctuary. This description would only be possible after the return from exile and preclude the need for another Darius to be invented.

Your sanctuary that is desolate, verse 17: The foundation of the second Temple was laid some two years after the initial return (see Ezra 3:8,ff), however the building was kept from being built and dedicated until some 21 years later in the sixth year of Darius.

It was not to be actually completed until the days of Ezra. He was sent to Jerusalem in 456 B.C. (some 80 years after the decree of Cyrus) and, with Nehemiah, accomplished the completion of the Temple and walls of the city.

Jerusalem and the Temple were in a very sad state, therefore, all the days of Daniel and beyond. Daniel was a youth of perhaps fourteen to sixteen in 606; He would have been about 86 at the time of the return in 536 and approximately 98 at the time of this vision if our identification of Darius is correct.

9:20 And while I was speaking, and praying, and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel, and presenting my supplication before the LORD my God for the holy mountain of my God;

9:21 Yea, while I was speaking in prayer, even the man Gabriel, whom I had seen in the vision at the beginning, being caused to fly swiftly, touched me about the time of the evening oblation.

9:22 And he informed me, and talked with me, and said, O Daniel, I am now come forth to give you skill and understanding.

9:23 At the beginning of your supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to show you; for you are greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision.

The vision come from the angel and does not originate with Daniel.

9:24 Seventy weeks are determined upon your people and upon your holy city, to finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most Holy.

Seventy weeks: 70 times 7 or 490 years.

This prophecy is a key to other time prophecies. A day equals a year in prophetic language. Thus this prophecy is to be accomplished in 490 years. Daniel’s prayer concerning the 70 years is answered; however the angel gave him details of the city beyond his request.

The things to be accomplished: The first three items, i.e., to end sin, to finish transgression, and make reconciliation for iniquity, must point to the cross. The next two point to the completion of the things to be revealed: that is, bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up the vision and prophecy, i.e., the events that complete revelation in the New Testament; and finally the anointing points to the Messiah. These generally longed-for events, including the coming of the Messiah, are to be within the 490 years. More specific breakdown of the 490 years follows.

9:25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.

The commandment to restore Jerusalem: Which commandment? The commandment to Cyrus was in 536 B.C. Ezra was sent in 456 B.C. Usher places the decree to send Nehemiah at 448 B.C.

The sixty nine weeks:

This is one of the most incredible, yet clear, time prophecies in the Bible. 7 times 7 plus 62 times 7 equals 69 times 7, or 483 years.

There is one more week to complete the seventy described in the verses immediately below. The whole period of 490 years is thus divided: (7 X 7) + (62 X 7) + (1 X 7) = 490.

The 69 weeks bring you to the advent of the Messiah. It is not proper to separate the last week from the prophecy to a future date just as the first seven weeks are not to indicate a period unconnected with the 490 years. The violence this does to the prophecy is explained below.

This 69 week statement says that from the commandment to restore and build Jerusalem to the appearance of the Messiah will be 483 years. We choose the date from the decree to Ezra contemporary with Nehemiah the builder because this accomplished the spiritual return with the cleansing of the priesthood and because of the incredible fulfillment. From 456 B.C.

(the decree to Ezra) the 483 years will extend to 27 A.D. (456 + 27 = 483) Jesus was born 4 B.C. He would have been 1 in 3 B.C., 2 in 2 B.C., 3 in 1 B.C. and 27 years later in 27 A.D. he would have been 30 years old.

This is the exact year of his baptism when he was anointed, that is, when he became the Messiah. He did not become the Messiah when he was born.

He has always been the Son of God but he became the Messiah when he was anointed. This incredible prophecy numbers the exact time period from the most important commandment to restore Jerusalem to Jesus’ anointing by the Holy Spirit when he was baptized.

One day equals one year:

It is from this prophecy that the day-year principle is derived. One day in prophetic language is equal to one year in the fulfillment.

Troublous times:

The books of Ezra and Nehemiah record the long period of difficulties met in accomplishing the completion of the city. The 7 weeks or 49 years refer to this period beginning with 456 B.C. then the 62 weeks follow, or 434 years of waiting until the appearance of Messiah.

It is the accuracy of this time prophecy which has caused Talmudic Jews to place Daniel in the writings rather than the prophets in the Jewish division of the Old Testament.

9:26 And after threescore and two weeks shall Messiah be cut off, but not for himself: and the people of the prince that shall come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary; and the end thereof shall be with a flood, and to the end of the war desolations are determined.

After: the 483 years of waiting–how long after is specified below. The important prediction is that Messiah will not be cut off for himself but will die for others. Quite a prophetic statement, isn’t it?

After – destroy the city: Here the future destruction of Jerusalem, after the Messiah has been cut off, is foretold, but not how long after. It extends beyond the period, and the exact time of the destruction of the city (end of the war, desolations, etc.) is not given in the prophecy.

We know the people of the prince (the Romans) did come and destroy the city and temple in 70 A.D. after the 483 years. The concept is that as a result of the cutting off of the Messiah the people of the prince will come to destroy the temple that has now been abandoned by God.

In that sense it was already desolate when Titus destroyed it in 70 A.D. Titus did not make it desolate; Jesus made it desolate.

9:27 And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.

He shall confirm:

“He,” the Messiah will confirm the covenant. Not the prince who destroys the city. This latter is the violent method of interpretation offered by premillenial scholars. With their interpretation the prophecy ceases to be a 490 year prophecy, as the seventieth week is yet to come.

Incredibly they see the last seven years of the history of the world and Antichrist. But this is a 70 week prophecy, The last week refers to the seven years following 27 A.D., or it is not a 70 week prophecy.

Jesus confirmed the covenant: We would hope to find a fulfillment of the confirmation of the covenant that would extend not only to Pentecost but to the conversion of the Gentiles in Cornelius’ house.

It does not go so far; but 33 A.D. does encompass the conversion of the apostle Paul, the apostle to the Gentiles, and last apostle chosen to be in the foundation of the church; thus in prospect the confirmation of the covenant is complete.

The seventieth week:

Messiah came to bring and confirm a New Covenant. That confirmation would be accomplished in the seven years following Jesus’ baptism in 27 A.D. The rest of 27 then 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, would make 30 A.D., the midst of the week.

It is the year Messiah was cut off, but not for himself, as in verse 26, which is consequently when Jesus made the sacrifice and the oblation non effective. He caused it to cease in effectiveness.

Once Jesus died on the cross you can offer lambs by the millions and they have no validity — they are desolate. Jesus made the Temple worship desolate at the cross and it would remain desolate until that which was already determined was poured out later by the Romans on that which had already been made desolate by Jesus before they got there.

What remarkable coincidence in this wonderful 70 week prophecy. No human could have devised this before the events transpired. It is a faith-building prophecy.

Prophetic conclusions:

Besides the marvelous coincidence of the prophetic words in this chapter, one can note the following conclusions as well:

1. The premillenial interpretation is forced and does violence to the natural divisions in the prophecy. As in Daniel 2 the feet must be cut off the image and placed 1500 years away from the ankles, or the toes must be pictured as more than twice as long as the statue; (see diagram below) so here too, the final week must be separated from the rest of the fulfilled prophecy waiting, yet unfulfilled, how many more years beyond the now 1,900 plus already passed?

It is hardly a 70 week prophecy is it? Such a system of interpretation has to be wrong.

2. The validity of one day equals one year in prophetic symbolism is established.***

3. The 1260 days, 42 months, 3 1/2 years, time, times and half a time of Daniel and Revelation all refer not to a literal 3 and 1/2 years but to 1,260 years. Other time prophecies in Revelation are to be understood the same way. That is, one day in prophecy equals one year in the fulfillment.

* Cyaxares II may be the product of Xenophon’s imagination (c. 350 B.C.). He is known to have fictionalized his exploits among the Persians. Cyaxares II appears in no other ancient histories except those after Xenophon. All who believe that Cyaxares II is the Darius of Dan. 5:31 quote Xenophon and reject Herodotus (c. 475 B.C.).
** For a more thorough discussion of all theories of who this Darius might be, see Barnes Notes on Daniel, introduction to chapter VI. Barnes comes to a different conclusion using extensive but conjectural evidence.

*** The so called, 2300 day prophecy of Daniel 8 is excluded from this method as the word “day” is not used in the Hebrew text. The period is 2300 mornings and evenings, not days.

The KJV use of “day” caused many to predict future events erroneously, particularly the Millerites of the late 1800s out of whom the Seventh Day Adventist group arose due to the false use of the 2300 “day” prophecy. For more on the 2300 Day Prophecy, see the chapter by that name in this book.

Premillenial Interpretations do Violence to the Prophecy

The following diagram illustrates the way that some interpreters force the scripture into their interpretation instead of diagramming the scripture and fitting the interpretation to the scripture.

Such a forced interpretation as that illustrated below could not be done by our Omniscient God, He would not create a freak to represent what is real. Imagine a god who said that “History will look like a statue” and then to match the interpretation you have to draw toes as long as the rest of the statue.

Such a statue has to lie on his side because he can not stand on such deformed feet. Since premillenial scholars know that the division of the Roman Empire into 10 kingdoms took place about 500 years after the advent of Jesus of Nazareth and they err in not believing “the little stone” has hit the image in the feet as yet, then they are forced to draw toes that are 1500 years long.

The diagram is not actually proportionate however since an honest picture of the toes make them 1 and 1/3 times longer that the complete standing image. The rest of the statue is proportionate to the time periods that each symbolic portion predicted. Surely God did not predict history represented by a freak statue.

The Great Tribulation of Matthew 24 is not an End Time Prophecy

The Great Tribulation of Matthew 24 is not an End Time Prophecy

Chapter 15

Matthew 24

(1) And Jesus went out, and departed from the temple; and his disciples came to him to show him the buildings of the temple.
(2) And Jesus said to them, Do you not see all these things? truly I say to you, There shall not be left here one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down.
(3) And as he sat on the mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of your coming, and of the end of the world?
(4) And Jesus answered and said to them, Take heed that no man deceive you.
(5) For many shall come in my name, saying, I am Christ; and shall deceive many.
(6) And you shall hear of wars and rumors of wars; see that you be not troubled; for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet.
(7) For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places.
(8) All these are the beginning of sorrows.
(9) Then shall they deliver you up to be afflicted, and shall kill you; and you shall be hated of all nations for my name’s sake.
(10) And then shall many be offended, and shall betray one another, and shall hate one another.
 (11) And many false prophets shall rise, and shall deceive many.
(12) And because iniquity shall abound, the love of many shall wax cold.
 (13) But he that shall endure to the end, the same shall be saved.
(14) And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness to all nations; and then shall the end come.
 (15) When you therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place, (whoever reads, let him understand;)
(16) Then let them which be in Judea flee to the mountains;
 (17) Let him which is on the housetop not come down to take any thing out of his house;
(18) Neither let him which is in the field return back to take his clothes.
(19) And woe to them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days!
(20) But pray you that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath day;
(21) For then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be.
(22) And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved; but for the elect’s sake those days shall be shortened.
(23) Then if any man shall say to you, Look, here is Christ, or there; believe it not.
(24) For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall shew great signs and wonders; insomuch that, if possible, they shall deceive the very elect.
(25) Behold, I have told you before.
(26) Wherefore if they shall say to you, Behold, he is in the desert; go not forth; behold, he is in the secret chambers; believe it not.
(27) For as the lightning comes out of the east, and shines even to the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.
 (28) For wheresoever the carcass is, there will the eagles be gathered together.
(29) Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken;
(30) And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven; and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.
(31) And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.
(32) Now learn a parable of the fig tree; When his branch is yet tender, and puts forth leaves, you know that summer is nigh;
(33) So likewise you, when you shall see all these things, know that it is near, even at the doors.
(34) Verily I say to you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled.
(35) Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.
(36) But of that day and hour knows no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father only.
(37) But as the days of Noah were, so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.
 (38) For as in the days that were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark,
(39) and knew not until the flood came, and took them all away; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.
(40) Then shall two be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
(41) Two women shall be grinding at the mill; the one shall be taken, and the other left.
(42) Watch therefore; for you know not what hour your Lord doth come.
(43) But know this, that if the goodman of the house had known in what watch the thief would come, he would have watched, and would not have suffered his house to be broken up.
(44) Therefore be you also ready; for in such an hour as you think not the Son of man comes.
(45) Who then is a faithful and wise servant, whom his lord hath made ruler over his household, to give them meat in due season?
(46) Blessed is that servant, whom his lord when he comes shall find so doing.
(47) Verily I say to you, That he shall make him ruler over all his goods.
(48) But and if that evil servant shall say in his heart, My lord delays his coming;
(49) And shall begin to smite his fellowservants, and to eat and drink with the drunken;
 (50) The lord of that servant shall come in a day when he looks not for him, and in an hour that he is not aware of,
(51) And shall cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the hypocrites; there shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

There is great difficulty in “rightly dividing” this passage. The reality of the difficulty does not mean that parts of it cannot be understood, while other parts wait for fulfillment to properly understand the eternality that may be involved.
If we make mistakes in interpreting the passage let it be on the side of caution. There are portions that would clearly have been understood by the apostles and early Christians which were fulfilled in their lifetimes, while the events that coincide with the second coming will have to happen before they are clear.

For instance verse
 (34), Verily I say to you, This generation shall not pass, till all these things be fulfilled, has been a problem to many for satisfactory interpretation. A solution proposed based on the words “these things” may have merit. Jesus said, “do you see all these things?”
He referred to the temple and Jerusalem. They said, “When will these things happen?” They also meant the temple’s destruction; then, after that, they asked the question about the second coming. In verse 33 Jesus said, “When you see all these things then know that the end is near.”
The end of what?
Why, the end of these things. So far these things has referred to Jerusalem and the temple. Thus, in verse 34 when Jesus said, “This generation shall not pass away until all these things are fulfilled,” He no doubt still meant the same these things. And that generation did not pass away until all these things concerning the temple and Jerusalem were fulfilled!

Some have insisted that everything in chapter 24 was fulfilled in the lifetime of those hearing Jesus. This is simply impossible to accept, for if accepted would leave doubts forever in the reader’s mind.
Others solve the problem by noting that the word translated “generation” in Greek is “genos,” which may mean “race” or “ethnic group.” Thus to them the passage says that the Jews will always exist until the second coming.
This is a clever interpretation, but we will not know if it is correct until the Lord comes or the nation of the Jews disappears. Seeing this verse as part mystery, that we will not completely solve, does not stop us from arriving at some absolute conclusions on the major portion of the chapter, which speaks of the destruction of the temple buildings.

A major fact that is clearly understandable is that Jesus was answering three questions, (which may actually be only two), as a result of his saying that the temple buildings would be destroyed. He said, concerning the buildings of the temple, that there would not be one stone of them left standing. In response the disciples asked:

1. “When shall these things be?”
 If this question did not refer to the destruction of the temple, fulfilled in 70 A.D. then there is no hope of understanding any words in any literature at all.

2. “What is the sign of your coming?”

3. “and of the end of the world?”
These last two seem, to me, to be the same question. There seems to be little doubt that the disciples asked questions that extend much further than 70 A.D. Therefore the answers of Jesus in Matthew 24 must refer to these questions. But this is not so in the parallel passages in Mark and Luke, where only the destruction of Jerusalem is asked about.

If we can use hindsight to clearly apply those things in the passage, in Matthew, to the first question about the destruction of the temple, which has happened historically, then it is not evasiveness to allow the rest of the prophetic events to be cleared up in the fulfillment. If much material refers to the second coming, as it certainly appears to, then only that event will clear it up.

On the other hand, there is no doubt about the events surrounding the destruction of the temple. They have already happened and have been documented. It seems clear to me that the verses from four to twenty eight are exclusively applied to that event and a historical fulfillment is able to be seen in the actual events that match the prophecy perfectly.

1. Jesus gave admonitions to those waiting for the destruction of the temple and the city; and as parallel passages show, many coming would claim to be the Messiah and deceive many, not few. A series of events brought on by a rebellion of Zealot groups in Galilee led to the Jewish Wars of 66 to 70 A.D.
When Jerusalem was surrounded by Roman armies it resulted in Jerusalem being divided internally by at least three Jewish factions, all of which were led by men claiming to be the Messiah. Josephus, at great length, describes the Zealot capture of the temple area. He describes the main participants who had messianic aspirations: John of Gishala, Bar Giora, Simon the Idumean and others who gained control of portions of the city; there was great confusion in the city. Civil war was inside and the Roman armies outside.

2. Josephus says that while the Romans surrounded the city and kept it under siege, more people were killed by factional fighting inside the city than the Romans killed in combat. It is said that Titus offered amnesty to anyone who would flee the city but that the factions striving for mastery prevented anyone falling away to the Romans upon threat of death.
Those who fled the city had their bellies cut open by Syrians and Idumeans who sought the gold that those in flight may have swallowed to conceal. Those who died or were killed within the city were thrown over the walls. When their dead bodies filled huge areas of ravines and trenches, Titus is said to have lifted his hands to heaven and called upon God as witness that he had not caused such extremities.* The admonition of Jesus to flee to the mountains is understandable and was heeded. The Christians were certainly forewarned of this terrible event.

* Josephus; Book V, XII, 4.

This same event, about which the disciples questioned Jesus, is made clearer in Luke 21, where it is evident that only the first question about the destruction of Jerusalem is being asked and answered. It is not a second coming passage.

(Luke 21:6) As for these things which you see, the days will come, in which there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. (7) And they asked him, saying, Master, but when shall these things be? and what sign will there be when these things shall come to pass? … (20) [Jesus said,] when you shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is near. (21) Then let them which are in Judea flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in the countries enter into it. (22)
For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. (23) But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck, in those days! for there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath upon this people. (24) And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations; and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled.

In the passage above, even though it is obvious that Jesus tells of things which reach beyond the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D., it is that event that he speaks of and the rest result from that destruction. The parallel passage in Mark is also related to only one question, and that is about when the buildings of the temple will be thrown down.

(Mark 13:1) And as he went out of the temple, one of his disciples said unto him, Master, see what manner of stones and what buildings are here! (2) And Jesus answering said unto him, Do you see these great buildings? there shall not be left one stone upon another, that shall not be thrown down. (3) And as he sat on the mount of Olives opposite the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked him privately, (4) Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled?

Jesus gives similar warnings to them about false Christs being associated with the destruction of Jerusalem and that they themselves would be persecuted. And He refers to the abomination of desolation in Daniel 9 which Luke clearly predicts as the [Roman] armies surrounding Jerusalem. He also describes the time of trouble or “great tribulation” as Matthew calls it. Continuing in Mark 13:

(Mark 13:14) But when you shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that reads understand,) then let them that be in Judea flee to the mountains; (15) And let him that is on the housetop not go down into the house, neither enter to take any thing out of his house; (16) And let him that is in the field not turn back again to take up his garment. (17) But woe to them that are with child, and to them that give suck in those days! (18) And pray that your flight be not in the winter. (19) For in those days shall be affliction, such as was not from the beginning of the creation which God created unto this time, neither shall be.

It does not take an expert to know that these verses were clearly fulfilled in 70 A.D. with the destruction of the temple at Jerusalem. A reading of Josephus’ Wars of the Jews, Books V and VI, will give a picture of the extremities which befell the Jews who fled into Jerusalem pursued by Roman armies. Vespasian was sent by Nero to put down the rebellion of Jews.
 As he captured city after city in Galilee and Judea the populace fled to Jerusalem, already crowded by the pilgrims who had come to keep the passover. The city was overcrowded and the siege was then laid. More people died of the famine and disease than from arms, and more people died from civil war in the city than from Roman arms.
Vespasian returned to Rome to become the emperor. He left his son Titus to continue the siege. Men would leave the city at night to attack and forage for food. Titus captured the foragers and crucified them. Josephus recorded that the hills around Jerusalem were crowded with crucified victims and in a description, which may or may not be a hyperbole, says they only stopped the crucifixions because they ran out of wood!

Being forewarned the Christians were able to see the times and seasons and actually did depart from the city before these extremities began.

“Jerusalem was taken in the autumn of 70 A.D. Before its fall the Christians had left the doomed city. While the greater part retired beyond the Jordan and founded Christian colonies at Pella and the neighborhood, the principle leaders of the church — the surviving apostles and other personal disciples of the Lord — sought a new home in proconsular Asia. Henceforward we find the headquarters of Christendom no more at Jerusalem, nor even at Antioch but, (for the time at least) in Ephesus. Here John fixed his abode after his temporary banishment in Patmos.”*

* Lightfoot, J.B.; Translated and edited; Apostolic Fathers: Clement, Ignatius, Polycarp; first published 1889; Pub. Hendrickson; Vol. 1, pg. 438.

At the beginning of the siege the city was already crowded because of foreign Jews who had arrived to keep the passover. Thus with the retreating Galileans and Judeans the initial population at the time of the beginning of the siege is estimated to have been three million souls.
Josephus estimates two million seven hundred fifty thousand would account for the number of passover participants alone. During and at the conclusion of the siege multitudes were sold as slaves into the Egyptian mines; multitudes more sent to the provinces to die in the arenas. But only 97,000 people were taken captive. Concerning the number who died in the siege Josephus says:

“The number of those that perished during the whole siege [was] one million, one hundred thousand, the greater part of whom were of the same nation but not belonging to the city itself; for they were come up from all the country to the feast of unleavened bread and were of a sudden shut up by an army which at the first, occasioned so great a straitness among them, that there came a pestilential destruction upon them and soon afterward such a famine as destroyed them more suddenly… The multitude of them who therein perished exceeded all the destructions that either men or God brought on the world.” *

* Josephus; Book VI, IX: 3, 4.

Men were found hiding in the subterranean chambers which abound under Jerusalem and were sealed in by their thousands and thus perished. The last Zealots who fled to Masada left a legacy of mindless zeal known to all. They committed mass suicide a few years later.

The worst part of the siege, which lasted a little over a year and resulted in the destruction of the city even to the removing of the walls, resulted also in the systematic removal of the temple, stone by stone. This, because the gold which adorned the interior, melted by the conflagration, had run between the joints of the stones. The Roman armies, according to Josephus, dismantled the temple to retrieve the gold.
There may be more remains of those stones but all this author has heard of is one stone, positively identified, remaining from the temple and that is in the Rockefeller Museum at Jerusalem. It appears that there are not two stones remaining that could be replaced one on top of the other.

Thus was the temple and Jerusalem destroyed. Jerusalem was razed, and would remain a desolation until Hadrian attempted to rebuild it, and a temple to Jupiter on the temple mount, which resulted in the rebellion under Bar Cochbah in A.D. 135.*

* Dio: LXIX, 12:1.The Years A.D. 68 to 70 Were Eventful. Jesus Predicted that Persecutions and Calamities in Nature and Governments would be Associated with the Trouble in Judea.

Five different emperors of Rome would wear the Imperial crown during the time of the Jewish war, which gives some indication of the political chaos of the period of less than three years: they would be Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius and Vespasian. What an eventful period the short time between A.D. 68 to 70 was! Vespasian who had won his fame in Britain,[1] actually stationed at Badbury Rings, was ordered to Palestine[2] to put down the momentary and seemingly successful (to the Jews) claim of independence by the Palestinian false prophets.
 The war blazed up in A.D. 66 and the Romans were not able to subdue any of the Jews until Vespasian arrived in 68.[3] Thus, there were more than three years of independence in which new coins were minted up to year three of the new order.[4] But the rebellion of the Jews was to fail and the war by the Romans make real progress by A.D. 68, (Galilee fell, Josephus was captured and defected to the Romans).
At the same time the apostles Peter[5] and Paul[6] were put to death; the only traditions we have say one was beheaded and the other crucified upside down during Nero’s last days, which included earthquakes and the burning of Rome and the first major general persecution of the church in which many Christians died in many cities.[7]
 Shortly, Nero’s excesses were consummated–he killed at whim all whom he would, was profligate in every way, sodomized his half-brother and killed him, debauched his sister, actually legally married two men and cohabited openly with them, had his games held at night lighted by humans daubed with pitch and set alight; he murdered his own mother, Agrippina, and then voyeuristically examined her corpse, and was finally rejected and belatedly committed suicide.[8]
 Galba assumed the Imperial crown, while Vespasian closed the gap on Jerusalem to secure the siege, and according to Dio, held back on committing his troups until he saw how all would go in Rome.[9] It was at this time, when Vespasian withdrew from the city, that the Christians left the city bound for Pella. This also gave time for the factions to kill each other inside the city as they fought for supremacy.
Some months later Galba was attacked by Vitellius whose armies proclaimed him emperor in Germany.[10] During this civil war, Otho, friend of Nero, arose and assassinated Galba nine months after he had become emperor and Otho paraded his head on a pole around Rome and to the senate where he was voted emperor by the cowed senators.[11]
Vitellius marched on Rome and won singular battles causing Otho to commit suicide three months after his murder of Galba.[12] Tactius calls the civil wars associated with Galba and Vitellius, “a world wide upheaval,”[13] because of the conflicts on sea as well as land. When Vespasian heard Vitellius was emperor he made his move on Rome by way of Alexandria, where he waited while his friends won his crown.[14]
 He had left Titus who then laid the siege against Jerusalem in greater earnest. Amnesties were continually offered by Titus during the interval just mentioned, and would be offered again by a merciful but conquering Titus, but not as often nor as sincerely. Before Vespasian arrived at Rome a few battles were fought and lost by Vitellius’ armies.
He himself was living a profligate lifestyle in Rome. Domitian, brother of Titus, was making a place for himself and would have overthrown his father Vespasian if he could, (it would later be said he poisoned his brother Titus to become emperor). Over 50,000 died in the city of Rome itself when Vitellius was rejected and abused by the Roman population.[15]
 He was publicly beheaded and his head paraded through the city, having worn the Imperial crown just a little less than a year. Vespasian became emperor and Jerusalem was overthrown with a flood of blood.[16] Titus came to Rome to celebrate the Triumph with Vespasian his father.[17] John Bar Giora, perhaps the major one of several false Messiahs, was taken alive to Rome and put to death during the Triumph. [18]

{1} Dio: Book LXIV, 8:3.

[2] Dio: Book LXIII, 1.

[3] Eusebius: Book 2, 26:2.

[4] Comway, Joan; The Temple of Jerusalem; Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1975. For pictures of coins struck by the independent Jewish state after A.D. 67, see pg. 181.

[5] Foxe, John, edited William Forbush: Fox’s Book of Martyrs; Holt, Rinehart, Co., 1926; first published 1547. Fox cites Hegesippus, and Jerome for his information. Pg. 4.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Ibid. pg, 6.

[8] Suetonius; VI, 49.

[9] Dio: LXIV, 8:3

[10] Dio: LXIII, 5-7.

[11] Dio: ibid.

[12] . Dio: LXIII, 10-15.

[13] Tacitus: The Histories; Book 2:16.

[14] Suetonius: X, 7-8.

[15] Dio: Book LXIV, 20:1,2.

[16] Josephus: Wars of the Jews; Books V and VI.

[17] Dio: Book LXV, 13:1.

[18] Dio: LXV, 7:1.

There has not been from the foundation of Babylon of old to this day a more horrible destruction. No other city has ever lost over one million people, dead in a single siege! Dio says over 540,000 Jews died directly from battle and the people who died as a result of famine and disease and internal disorder were uncountable. Eusebius gives the same number as Josephus, or 1,100,000 total dead in the siege.*

* Josephus: Wars of the Jews; Book VI, 9:3; Eusebius: Book 3, 5:1-4.

Thus are fulfilled the words of Jesus that there would be great tribulation of these proportions associated with the destruction of Jerusalem as well as nations rising against nation. Incredibly, the Christians were able to save themselves and flee the city, on the basis of faith in this prophecy. Eusebius said a prophet warned them of the time.*

Eusebius: Book III, 5:4.

“The members of the Jerusalem church by means of an oracle, given by revelation to acceptable persons there, were ordered to leave the city before the war began and settle in a town in Peraea called Pella.”

The people of that day believed Jesus’ prophecy and warning. How strange it is for people of this generation to forget this faith-building verification of Jesus’ knowledge of the future, and to trust in fables.

This passage is much abused by futurist interpreters who assign this tribulation to an event they think will happen, almost unbelievably, when the church will have no fear of it. According to them it starts three and a half years after the rapture and will continue through the short reign of the supposed future antichrist!
This same school of thought also misuses the seventy week prophecy of Daniel 9 as we have shown in our comments on that chapter. The great tribulation of Matthew 24 is not an “end time” prophecy! It was marvelously fulfilled in the destruction of Jerusalem which is clearly seen to have been predicted in the passages quoted from the synoptic gospels above.
 If the great tribulation is actually fulfilled in those events of 68 to 70 A.D. then the doctrine of “a pretribulation rapture” is fantasy with no scriptural substance to support it. Eusebius also adds the comments that show that the general view, at his time, in the fourth century church, was that these events fulfilled the prophecy given by Jesus in Matthew 24.* What an eventful three years those of A.D. 68 to 70 were!

* Eusebius; Book 3, 7:1-3

Revelation 13 The Little Horn of Daniel Chapter 7


Revelation 13 is Built on the 7th Chapter of Daniel:

This chapter is placed first in the book for two reasons. First, there is historical material in the book of Daniel that is easier to interpret and upon which symbols in the Book of Revelation are based. Second, the earliest expositors of the prophecies in Revelation, in the second century A.D., began with, and were most successful in understanding these prophecies in Daniel.

That Daniel could make such predictions, as follows, is verification of the divinity of the Source. They read like historical hindsight, not like a look to the future, because his predictions not only predict the outline of future events but name by name the participants. No one could have predicted these events before they happened unless God revealed them to him. They are too clear.

There is, of course, one other option — that the book of Daniel is a fraud and that it was written after the events that it describes. There are many who adopt this view. They, of course do not believe in divine inspiration, therefore, to them, the prophecies have to be some form of literary style, rather than visions of the future. They are said to have been written in the days of Antiochus Epiphanies in the Greek period, or about 160 B.C. It is easy to show this can’t be true and empirically prove the existence of the book of Daniel before the fulfillment of the prophecies which validate it.

The Book of Daniel in the Mishnah

The Mishnah contains quotations from most of the books of the Old Testament. However it does not contain any quotation from the book of Daniel. It does refer twice, however, directly to the book of Daniel as follows:

Speaking of the preparation of the High Priest for the day of Atonement in Mishnah Yoma 1:6 it is said that the High Priest would listen to the scriptures read, and their exposition as a diversion, because of the importance of the event and worship which he only could perform.

The importance of the event is highlighted by information that the High Priest had a substitute High Priest ready to be installed in the event that he (the first) would die on the inception or during the performance of his duties. There was also a woman at ready to be married to him in case his wife died, since he had to offer first for himself and his house, it being understood that if his wife died he would have no house and could not therefore fulfill the scripture!

In this context, the book of Daniel is mentioned. The books said to be read to the High Priest because they were highly exciting and could divert his attention from the pressing duties of the coming Day of Atonement, were Job, Ezra, and Chronicles. The text continues “Zechariah b. Kabutal says: Many times I read before him out of Daniel.”

Rabbi Kabutal lived during the lifetime of the early church, before the destruction of the temple. This is a historical note which indicates the use of, and the presence of, the book of Daniel in the apostolic period and the lifetime of Jesus and its acceptance as Scripture by the Mishnah and those who lived before the writing of the Mishnah.

Following is quoted from the Mishnah tractate Yadaim 4:5:

“The [Aramaic) version that is in Ezra and Daniel renders the hands unclean. If an [Aramaic] version [contained in the Scriptures] was written in Hebrew, or if [Scripture that is in] Hebrew was written in an [Aramaic] version, or in Hebrew script, it does not render the hands unclean. [The Holy Scriptures] render the hands unclean only if they are written in the Assyrian character, on leather, and in ink.”

We make no comment here about the main thought of the passage of whether we are clean or unclean but that the book of Daniel is again cited as historically accepted for a long time by Jewish sages as Scripture. We say “for a long time,” because the Mishnah contains applications and comments on the Law of Moses which have been handed down from the time of the Babylonian captivity and onward. In the above quoted section the Aramaic passages in Daniel (Dan 2:4 to 6:28) are not in doubt as Scripture.

This passage in the Mishnah would have been a part of Oral Law indicating the long term acceptance of Daniel as Scripture. It would also tend to show the prejudice of later Jewish Masoretic scholars who placed Daniel among the Kethuvim or writings rather than among the Prophets. At the time of the writing of the Mishnah there is no indication of demoting Daniel from the prophets.

As the book of Daniel began to be used by the Christians in a greater way, because of the clearness of the prophecies concerning the Messiah and other prophecies concerning the Roman Empire, it was later avoided and downgraded by the Masoretic scholars in the fourth and fifth centuries A.D. The existence of Daniel as a canonical book and its use before and at the time of Christ is clearly evidenced in these passages in the Mishnah.

The New Testament

Jesus mentioned Daniel and quoted from the book of Daniel. This is recorded by both Matthew and Mark (Matt. 24:15; Mk 13:14) and is further evidence of the book of Daniel being empirically present among the hearers of Jesus as a book that had acceptance among the people for some time. That Jesus quoted and referred to Daniel is evidence enough to Christians. But we write these lines, not just for Christians, but that unbelievers might believe.

The Dead Sea Scrolls

The fact that surviving large portions of manuscripts of the book of Daniel were found among the Dead Sea Scrolls is empirical evidence of the existence of the book over 100 years before Christ, which is the time of the writing of the scrolls. There are 3 separate fragments of copies of Daniel among the Scrolls and one fragment attempting to counterfeit Daniel..

At Qumran there are 11 caves in which manuscripts were found. The manuscripts are named by the number of the cave they were found in. Two portions of Daniel were found in cave 1 and one partial manuscript of Daniel in cave 6 and a copy of what is known as Pseudo Daniel in cave 4. In order: these are “1Q71; 1Q72; 6Q7 and 4Q243. Empirical evidence is evidence that you can touch. You don’t have to “believe” it to be true. You KNOW it to be true. By the scrolls we know the book of Daniel existed 100 years before Christ because we can “touch” a copy that is that old..

The Septuagint Translation

At the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, Greek ruler in Egypt and heir to Alexander the Great, the Jewish Scriptures were translated and deposited in the library at Alexandria. The Septuagint, called LXX, became the Scripture version used among the dispersed Jews and others. Almost all New Testament quotations of the Scriptures are from the LXX.

The book of Daniel is the only book of the Old Testament canon to have had controversy about its translation. Because its translation into Greek was always considered faulty, it was done later, again, from the Hebrew text, after the time of Christ. This controversy about the text proves the following: There is no doubt about the Hebrew text in the time of translating the LXX. The book existed then and could be compared from that time on with the original and the new Greek text. Complaints were consistently made from the time of its translation and onward. This proves the existence of the text and continuation of its existence up to and after the LXX was corrected!

The Hebrew Text of Daniel was translated at the time of the translation of the Septuagint Version,– 285 B.C. This is another empirical evidence of the existence of the book of Daniel, pushing it back to 285 B.C. The controversy about its translation simply punctuates that existence and makes sure to us that it was there. We do not have to “believe” this. We know that it was there empirically, due to the translation of the LXX. You cannot translate a book that you do not have!

The Great Synagogue

The return from Babylonian captivity, in 536 B,C.. was followed by a distressing period of getting the nation rebuilt. About the year 456 B.C., almost 100 years later, Ezra and Nehemiah restored the city of Jerusalem and the religious rites. The law of Moses was reinstated fully. The priesthood was purified. (Many interpretations of the Torah concerning marriage eligibility to priests which are in the Mishnah arose at this time)

The Great Synagogue which closed the canon of the Old Testament met at this time. We do not have the records of the Great Synagogue. We only know historically that it met and determined what books were a part of the canon of the Old Testament and which were not. [ For a discussion of the Talmudic references to the Great Synogogue and the forming of the canon of the Old Testament before Artaxerxes Longimanus, as attested by Josephus, see the introduction to Daniel in: Spence and Exell; The Pulpit Commentary, Daniel, Volume 13; Erdmans, Grand Rapids; pgs.xxxv to xlvi. For a discussion of the antiquity of the Canon before 300 B.C. see also: Milligan, R.; Reason and Revelation; St. Louis, 1867. pgs. 207-212. And also, Stanley, Arthur; Lectures on the History of the Jewish Church, Vol. III, The Captivity to the Christian Era; London, 1906. pgs. 130-134. ]

No books were added to the Jewish scriptures by Jews since the Great Synagogue of Ezra’s time. Daniel has been a part of the Old Testament canon since the time of the Great Synagogue. There was not a time, as we have noted, that Daniel has not been accepted as a part of Jewish Scripture.

It could only be deemed as such if it had been included at the time of the Great Synagogue. The Great Synagogue, before 400 B.C. is further evidence of the empirical existence of the book of Daniel before the time of the events it predicted.

Josephus, who was present and recorded the history of the fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. also wrote a complete history of the Jewish people. He gave the basic principle that a book was not canonical if it was written or received after the time of Artaxerxes king of Persia — the time of the Great Synagogue. He said that many accurate histories had been written since that time but neither literary value nor historical accuracy was the criteria for canonicity.

“We have… only twenty two books, which contain the records of all the past times; which are justly believed to be divine; and of them, five belong to Moses, which contain his laws, and the traditions of the origin of mankind until his death. This interval of time was little short of three thousand years; but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life.

It is true, our history has been written since Artaxerxes, very particularly, but has not been esteemed of the like authority with the former by our forefathers, because there has not been an exact procession of prophets since that time; and how firmly we have given credit to those books of our own nation is evident by what we do; for during so many ages as have already passed, no one has been so bold as either to add anything to them or take anything from them, or to make any change in them; but it becomes natural to all Jews, immediately and from their very birth, to esteem those books to contain divine doctrines, and to persist in them, and, if occasion be, [to be] willing to die for them.” [Josephus; Against Apion; 1:8.]

Needless to say, it would have been impossibe to sneak a book into the canon of the Old Testament, unnoticed by the Jews, after the time of Artaxerxes. Only the historically naive would make such claims. The idea of a late date for Daniel has been refuted in a number of works, expending great effort and making many historical searches with references. [Spence and Exell; op. cit. pgs. xi-xl]. Those who are skeptics need no such scholarship. Uncertainty and doubt are bosom companions; they arise from ignorance of facts.

Daniel a Great Man

Daniel was a great man in his own time. He had gone into captivity in Babylon in 606 B.C. in the first stage of the three stages of exile. Ezekiel was a prophet who joined the exile, (unwillingly, of course) at its second stage — about 595 B.C. After that event, but before the final destruction of the city of Jerusalem in 585 B.C., he mentions Daniel as among the great men of the ages! Daniel would have been in his mid to upper 30’s at the time that Ezekiel wrote about him.

(14:14) Though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they should deliver {but} their own souls by their righteousness, saith the Lord God.

(14:20) Though Noah, Daniel, and Job {were} in it, {as} I live, saith the Lord God, they shall deliver neither son nor daughter; they shall {but} deliver their own souls by their righteousness.

In these verses above Ezekiel is saying that Jerusalem will be destroyed. Even Noah, Job, or Daniel could not save it, or even their own families, if they were there. He mentions Daniel again:

(28:3) Behold, thou {art} wiser than Daniel; there is no secret that they can hide from thee:

In the verse above, Ezekiel mentions Daniel in the context of the King of Tyre passage, which speaks either of the King of Tyre’s or Satan’s rebellion against God. He does not compare his presumption with Solomon, but with Daniel! Daniel was recognized by the men of his own generation!

There is no historical reason to doubt that Daniel lived and wrote 150 years before the Great Synagogue, when the Book says it was written.

The Roman Empire — Its Rise and Fall

It is understood by all who have followed Daniel’s time that Daniel predicted the rise and fall of the Roman Empire although he does not name it.

The second chapter of Daniel contains the vision of the dream of Nebuchadnezzar, which Daniel interpreted as an outline of future world empires. He said there would be four world empires, beginning with the one which at his time was ruling the earth. The vision says, “History looks like a statue.”

There is basically no disagreement among interpreters, either Catholic or Protestant, on the interpretation of the image of Nebuchadnezzar’s dream in Daniel 2. All agree that the image predicts the four world empires: Babylon, the head of gold; Medo-Persia, the chest; Greece, the loins; and Rome represented in the legs and feet.

There is difference of opinion on the meaning of the little stone, described in the prophecy as destroying the whole system when it hits the image in the feet:

2:34 You saw till that a stone was cut out without hands, which struck the image upon his feet [that were] of iron and clay, and broke them to pieces. 2:35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that struck the image became a great mountain, and filled the whole earth.

Daniel interprets the little stone as the Kingdom of God which strikes the image in the feet, and destroys the system represented by the image and itself goes on to fill the whole earth:

2:44 And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, [but] it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever. 2:45 Forasmuch as you saw that the stone was cut out of the mountain without hands, and that it broke in pieces the iron, the brass, the clay, the silver, and the gold; the great God has made known to the king what shall come to pass hereafter: and the dream [is] certain, and the interpretation thereof is sure.

 let the reader’s imagination fill in the rest of this conclusion.[ See Appendix B.]

To return to the main point. There is no difference of opinion among writers in the Christian community, Catholic, or Protestant, concerning the identity of the fourth empire. In general terms, all agree it is Rome.

The Four Beasts of Daniel 7

The content of the meaning of the vision of the image in chapter 2 is continued here in chapter 7. Here the four empires are pictured as beasts. They are still the same four. And again, even though not named in the text, almost all expositors, agree that the ten-horned fourth beast of this chapter is the Roman Empire. The meaning of the vision is the same but the details are much more amplified. But simply stated, the saints of God will struggle with the fourth beast and in the end will replace it completely. Thus in Daniel:

7:16 I came near to one of them that stood by, and asked him the truth of all this. So he told me, and made me know the interpretation of the things. (17) These great beasts, which are four, [are] four kings, [which] shall arise out of the earth. (18) But the saints of the most High shall take the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.

The fourth beast is described as having ten horns which are ten kingdoms which shall rise out of it. Among them after they arise another little horn will arise and kill three of them: This little horn will work against the saints of God and over-come them. They are given into his hand until he is judged, then the saints take the kingdom. Thus:

7:7 After this I saw in the night visions, and behold a fourth beast, dreadful and terrible, and strong exceedingly; and it had great iron teeth: it devoured and brake in pieces, and stamped the residue with the feet of it: and it [was] diverse from all the beasts that [were] before it; and it had ten horns. (8) I considered the horns, and, behold, there came up among them another little horn, before whom there were three of the first horns plucked up by the roots: and, behold, in this horn were eyes like the eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great things. (11) I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which the horn spoke: I beheld [even] till the beast was slain, and his body destroyed, and given to the burning flame. (12) As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their dominion taken away: yet their lives were prolonged for a season and time.

[The next corresponds to the little stone of chapter 2.]

7:13 I saw in the night visions, and, behold, [one] like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and they brought him near before him. (14) And there was given him dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages, should serve him: his dominion [is] an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, and his kingdom [that] which shall not be destroyed.

[There follows a fuller description of the little horn:]

7:19 Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was different from all the others, exceedingly dreadful, whose teeth [were of] iron, and his nails [of] brass; [which] devoured, broke in pieces, and stamped the residue with his feet; (20) And of the ten horns that [were] in his head, and of the other which came up, and before whom three fell; even [of] that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spoke very great things, whose look [was] more stout than his fellows. (21) I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them; (22) Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom. (23) Thus he said, The fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom upon earth, which shall be different from all kingdoms, and shall devour the whole earth, and shall tread it down, and break it in pieces. (24) And the ten horns out of this kingdom [are] ten kings that shall arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be different from the first, and he shall subdue three kings. (25) And he shall speak [great] words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hands until a time and times and the dividing of a time. (26) But the judgment shall sit, and they shall take away his dominion, to consume and to destroy [it] to the end. (27) And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the most High, whose kingdom [is] an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey him. (28) This [is] the end of the matter.

There is no difference of opinion about the fourth beast. Almost all agree, with rare exception, that it is the Roman Empire. The Roman Catholic Douay version has footnotes that are interesting in this place.

“Chapter 7 ver 3: Four great beasts; The Chaldean, Persian, Grecian, and Roman Empires.”

“Ver 7; Ten horns; That is ten kingdoms, (as in Apoc. 17:13) among which the empire of the fourth beast shall be parcelled.”

The positions taken by interpreters is divided among those who believe the little stone is the church, and those who think the event still future. The former see a spiritual kingdom — the church — which later overcame the system of government, based on paganism, started first by Nebuchadnezzar and which system was then received in sequence by the Persians, and then by the Greeks and finally by the Romans. The little stone destroyed the image with some immediacy when it hit the empire in the feet. The location which was struck by the little stone, because of its position down the scale of the legs, would indicate the latter time of the Roman Empire. The toes, on the other hand, would indicate, not the latter times but a time after its division into ten kingdoms. To those seeing the church as the spiritual kingdom, the little stone’s filling of the whole earth is progressive and still going on.

On the other hand are the Futurists who say that the little stone will hit the image in the toes (even though the text does not so state) which to them means: after the Roman Empire was divided, the kingdom of David is to be restored at Jerusalem. Because Jesus did not restore the earthly rule of David’s throne, the Futurists believe that the event was postponed. Thus they see the little stone as the Millennial Kingdom which is yet to come.

One must remember that there is no basic disagreement that the fourth empire refers to the Roman Empire. To which discussion I will return, but first this application:

Which View Does the Image Fit?

This divinely inspired figure says, “History will look like a statue.” Visualize with me the statue, and see the correspondence. Ask yourself why did God use the figure of a statue? Should there be some correspondence as to time? In other words should not the statue be proportionate to what it predicts? Certainly so! And so it does.

For the head was barely 69 years (unless you date it from Nebuchadnezzar’s first taking of Babylon, which would add a few more years) before the portion of chest and shoulders allotted to the Medo Persians, came and went, consuming some 214 years, from Cyrus to Alexander. If we date the beginning of the Roman Empire at the Battle of Actium, as many do, then the Greek period of the loins stretches 290 years. From that point the legs, and feet, representing the Roman Empire are 511 years long. That would make the upper torso and head be 504 years long and the rest of the body 511 years long. If you will use those proportions you will find that not only did Daniel predict the coming four empires but gave an accurate prediction of their proportionate rules.

If you used this proportion allowing seven inches for the head, twenty one for the chest, twenty nine from diaphragm to hips, and fifty one from hip joints to feet, you will find that history indeed does match the proportions of a statue. And the church starting in the days of the Roman Empire, with its consequent struggle that saw the old pagan system pass away and Christianity take its place, fits the vision exactly, by the little stone striking the image, chronologically as well as physically in the spot, at or toward the latter times of that Empire, but before it was divided into ten kingdoms.

But what if the image hasn’t been hit in the toes yet. Since there were 511 years from Actium to the fall of Rome, and the fall of Rome should be the time of the appearance of the ten toes, that would make the toes over 1500 years long and still growing! There is obviously something wrong with that interpretation. We will

This chapter actually does open up if one simply substitutes the name of the Roman Empire for its code name as the first beast. Let’s try the paraphrase of Chapter 13.

Verses 1 – 8 I saw the Roman Empire rise up having seven heads (or the seven forms of government through which it was to pass) and ten horns (or the ten kingdoms into which it was to be divided.) It had the appearance of the Babylonian, Persian and Greek empires that were before it and the Devil gave it its authority.

I saw one of its forms of government wounded to death, but its wound was healed; and all the world wondered after the Roman Empire. And they worshipped the Devil who gave power to the Roman Empire, and they said who is like the Roman Empire or is able to make war against it?

And the Roman Empire blasphemed and (after it was wounded to death and healed of the wound) it was given power to continue 1260 years. And the Roman Empire blasphemed the name of God and the church and the Christians. Besides having power over all nations and tongues he also made war with the true believers and overcame them. The non-christians worshipped him and they remained unsaved.

Verses 9, 10: If you are spiritually inclined listen: Be patient for the coming of the Lord; because human struggles based on selfishness and pride will keep on going on. But the Lord will make it right in the end. Don’t try to set this world’s ills right by warfare or other such human means.

Verses 11 – 14: I saw another empire rise up from the world system. It looked like Jesus but spoke like the Devil. He exercises all the power of the Roman Empire. This is after the wound of the Roman Empire was healed, and he caused people who live for this world to worship the Roman Empire. He is able to do signs and wonders and miracles in the Roman Empire, with which he deceives people who live for this world.

Verses 14 – 16: After the time of the healing of the wound of the Roman Empire, he says to those who live for this life that they should make a copy (an image) of the Roman Empire. And he empowered the newly living image of the Roman Empire, and caused the image of the Roman Empire to speak and he put to death all who would not obey the power of the image of the Roman Empire. And he caused men in all stations of life to give mental assent and to work for the renewed image of the Roman Empire.

Verses 17 – 18: He made it so no one can be involved in the economy unless he has the mark or the name of the Roman Empire, or the number of his name. Here is wisdom let him who has understanding count the number of the Roman Empire, which is also the number of a single person. And his number is 666.

This chapter outlines the history of western Europe. The Roman Empire fell in 476 A.D. The Bishop of Rome entered the vacuum of power left by the wounded Roman Empire. In the process of time this relationship developed into a world political power. The Papacy rose up into a divided Roman Empire.

As the little horn of Daniel it actually did take over three of those kingdoms. The Papal states were accumulated in pieces between the years 755 and 800.

The Exarchate of Ravenna was conferred on the Papacy under Pope Stephen II by Pepin, father of Charlemagne, in the year 755. The kingdom of the Lombards was conquered by Charlemagne, son of Pepin; he conferred that kingdom on the Papacy, laying the documents on the altar of St. Peter in Rome in the year 774, and the Roman senate itself was taken over by the Papacy by degrees. Shortly after 800 the three principalities were included in the Papal states which were held by the Papacy until 1870,- over 1000 years. [See Appendix F. Map 4.] These states were accumulated with no small amount of intrigue, war, bloodshed and other adjuncts of political turnovers.

As the two-horned beast, The Papacy did become an empire in its own right. In the year 800, when Charlemagne came to Rome the Pope crowned him Emperor of the Romans. The image to the beast could not be a clearer picture of the creation of the Holy Roman Empire.

This foundation of feudal society would last for over 1000 years until it was dismantled by Napoleon in 1804. During that 1000 years the Papacy truly wore out the saints of God and prevailed against them. Uncounted numbers of people who were simple believers were put to death because they would not worship the beast nor his image. While masquerading as the Vicar of Christ, this beast, for so a political power is styled in prophecy, waged wars, dominated politics, made kings, dethroned kings, and literally exercised naked arbitrary power over the lives and deaths of many souls throughout the Papal states and the image he made to the Roman Empire called the Holy Roman Empire.

The Image of the Beast

The picture in the 13th chapter of Revelation is one of a pseudo religious-political organization restoring power to the Roman Empire. Historically such events as are pictured did occur. We have noted above the land grants of Pepin and Charlemagne and the usurpation of the Roman senate by the Vatican. At the conclusion of this period, in the year 800 Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor of the Romans. This act produced the image of the Empire called the Holy Roman Empire. It became the political framework which would be handed down for over 1000 years. It would dominate European politics and economy until its dissolution under Napoleon.

The actual end of the Holy Roman Empire came, in 1804, ironically in Napoleon’s assumption of the title of Emperor, without the authority of the Pope. The legal dissolution came in 1806 when the hereditary possessor of the title, Frances II of Austria, (who called Napoleon the new Odoacer) abdicated from the office of Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. This officially ended the entity.

Of this entity, the most well known history was compiled by James Bryce, Fellow, Trinity College, Oxford, first published in 1864, and republished in numberless editions for use in colleges and universities as a standard text. (That is, until our existential age, when the past has no relevance to the moment of existence. Hopefully that nonsense will soon pass). Bryce documents the list and history of the Emperors from Charlemagne to Frances II, all of whom were crowned or confirmed by Papal authority, most in Rome, though they were most often German or French kings. In his introduction to the eighth edition Bryce gives an analysis of the meaning connected with the announcement of the abdication of Frances II in London newspapers, in 1806.

“Of those , in 1806, who read in English newspapers that the Emperor Frances II had announced to the Diet his resignation of the imperial crown, there were probably few who reflected that the oldest political institution in the world had come to an end. Yet it was so.

The empire…extinguished, was the same which the crafty nephew of Julius [Caesar] had won for himself against the powers of the East, beneath the cliffs of Actium; and which had preserved almost unaltered, through eighteen centuries of time, and through the greatest changes in extent, in power, in character, a title and pretentions from which all meaning had long since departed.

Nothing else so directly linked the old world to the new… From the days of Constantine untill late into the middle ages it was, conjointly with the Papacy, the recognized center and head of Christendom, exercising over the minds of men an influence such as its material strength could never have commanded… Strictly speaking, it is from the year 800 A.D. when a king of the Franks was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III that the beginning of the Holy Roman Empire must be dated.”[See: Bryce, James, D.C.L.; The Holy Roman Empire; Pub. David McKay, Philadelphia, eighth edition, 1896. pg. 23.]

Bryce continues, noting that there is nothing isolated in history, and the Holy Roman Empire harks back to the Empire before its fall. As he has stated above, the power that dissolved in 1806 is that which was begun by Augustus in 35 B.C. at Actium.

The history of the power of a wounded and seemingly dead Roman Empire being assumed and arrogated to the Papal system, and the Papal system in the name of Rome creating an image to that first political system, called the Holy Roman Empire, is so clearly outlined in history, and then is so clearly outlined in Revelation the thirteenth chapter as to give no room for other application.

It seems strange to me that evangelical Christians have abandoned leaders who have for many centuries outlined these prophecies in more detail and greater precision than we do here.

That they would cast away their prophetic heritage for the fantasies that are currently being harked in the name of prophetic fulfillment is frustrating and shocking! Why, when they are so clearly fulfilled, does anyone look for a future fulfillment?

Antichrist has long since come. His reign of 1260 years is long since over. He has suffered most of the blows aimed to bring him from his place of arbitrary control of the physical and spiritual lives of men. He has but little time left.

Is it right to call the Papacy a power with the mouth of the Devil? Believe me, dear reader, when I tell you it gives me no joy to do so! Is it right to call the Papal system a whore who rides the power of the Roman Empire? Believe me, dear reader, I cringe at those words as much as you do. I would like to submit the following outline of historical events, that again give me no pleasure, but that enumerate some of wilful sins of those in the list of “successors of St. Peter”:

The Darkest Period of the Papacy

Adrian II, John VIII, Marinus, 867-884. These popes begin the darkest period of the papacy. 870-1050, called by historians the midnight of the dark Ages. Bribery, corruption, immorality, and bloodshed, make it the darkest period in the church’s history.

Sergius III, 904-911 A.D., had a mistress, Marosia. She and her mother Theodora, and her sister, filled the papal chair with their paramours and bastard sons, and turned the papal palace into a den of robbers.

This is known in history as the Pornocracy or Rule of Harlots

. John X, 914-928, was brought from Ravenna to Rome and made pope by Theodora (who had also other paramours) for the more convenient gratification of her passions. He was smothered to death by Marosia, who then raised to the papacy her creatures.

Leo VI, 928-9, Stephen VII 929-31, John XI 931 – 936 her own illegitimate son. Another of her sons appointed the four next popes.

John XII, 955-963: a grandson of Morosia was guilty of almost every crime; violated virgins and widows, lived with his father’s mistress; made the papal palace a brothel; was killed in the act of adultery by the woman’s enraged husband.

The Depths of Papal Degradation

The next six popes, 963-984: (Average 3 1/2 years per pope).

Boniface VII, 984-985, murdered pope John XIV, and maintained himself on the bloodstained Papal throne by distribution of stolen money. The bishop of Orleans referring to Boniface VII and his immediate predecessors called them “monsters of guilt reeking in blood and filth; Antichrist sitting in the Temple of God.”

Benedict VIII, 1012-1024, bought the office of pope with open bribery or Simony as it was called — after Simon the sorcerer.

John XIX, 1024-1033, bought the papacy; he passed through all the clerical degrees in one day.

Benedict IX, 1033-1045, was made pope as a boy of twelve with money and a powerful family. Surpassed John XII in wickedness; committed murders and adulteries in broad daylight; robbed pilgrims on the graves of martyrs; a hideous criminal, the people drove him out of Rome.

Gregory VI, 1045-1046, had two rival popes: Benedict IX, and Sylvester III. Rome swarmed with hired assassins; the virtue of pilgrims was violated; the churches desecrated with bloodshed.

Clement II, 1046-1047, was appointed pope by Holy Roman Emperor, Henry III because no Roman clergyman could be found who was free from bribery and fornication.

Damascus II, 1048: protests at the continued filth, called for reform and found a leader in the following pope:

Hildebrand or Gregory VII, 1073-1085: although moral reforms were effected, the consolidation of power under Hildebrand was so strong that the next two hundred years are marked by a new evil — that of going to war by papal armies. Armed force maintained several of the popes. Many of the next popes would be driven into exile by armies when they found their own forces overcome! In the previous period one would be justified in calling the Papacy a “whore.” In this period, 1073 and the next 200 years, the most evident characteristics of the two horned beast using the image of the beast are so evident as to be unmistakable.

Following that period, the Inquisition would follow as the Papal instrument of political power and many poor souls of simple believers would die under this inhuman instrument of the “vicar of Christ.”[Halley, Henry H.; Pocket Bible Handbook Pub. by Halley, Chicago, eighteenth edition, 1948. Above is a condensation of material found on pgs. 683-685.]

The above scheme copied from H.H. Halley an evangelical, could be reproduced from the pages of Roman historians as well. The Papacy is not ignorant of this history. Malachi Martin, who is still a member of the Roman church, was a member of the Vatican under John XXIII. He is more than a priest. In his book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church, he gives similar history with greater detail. He calls Morosia, “The Nymph who made popes.”

[See Martin, Malachi; The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church; Pub. Putnam, 1981, in hard cover and by Bantam, 1983, in mass market paper. The book is now out of print and none are available from either publisher, even though I was told there was still demand for the book. Another book by the same author, The Final Conclave, is a historical novel predicting a scenario in which a conclave of Cardinals will fail to produce a pope. It is recommended reading.]

This same history of moral and political corruption is more briefly but accurately recorded by Butler, another Roman author, who wrote an account of the Vatican Council 1869 – 1870. This book has an Imprimateur and a Nihil Obstat which means that Roman authorities had declared the book has no doctrinal errors. He says:

“In 1044 the condition of the Papacy had become so scandalous that the emperor Henry III intervened…[to lift the Papacy] out of its state of prostration and degradation in which it had lain for well nigh two hundred years.” [Butler, Dom Cuthbert; The Vatican Council 1869 – 1870; Newman Press, Maryland, 1962. pg. 12.]

Butler also gives the history of the Donation of Constantine, a fraudulent set of decrees which were knowing used by the Papacy to justify holding temporal power. Butler says:

“it was believed that the first Christian emperor had, in the plenitude of his power, handed over to the Pope…the power to rule over Italy, the Islands, and in a vague way all the West. It was on the strength of the Donation that the Popes gave authority for the Norman invasions of England and of Ireland, and many similar assignments of territory.” [Ibid. pg. 17.]

It gives me no pleasure to have to call these events from the past. But the Papal system has not repented. There are still the same stains of blood, money manipulation, alleged assassinations, and political intrigue which causes the sufferings of countless victims, done in the name of Christ. Yes, it is historically right to call the Papal system a whore. Yes, it is historically correct to see the Papal system as a political power that looks like Jesus and talks like the devil. At least one Papal insider sees the same thing.

The Number 666

The number 666 obviously refers to the name Roman. The text says so. It is the name of the beast.

13:17 And that no man might buy or sell except he who had the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

The number 666 not only does but it ought to refer to the name Roman. The reason arises from the incredible prophecies of Daniel where he predicts four world empires and proceeds to name three of them. In Daniel 2, Nebuchadnezzar’s empire begins the new world order of one nation ruling all the other civilized nations around the Mediterranean. The next three are described but not named here. The first is named: the Babylonian empire. It is the head of Gold.

“Ver 8: Another little horn; This is commonly understood of antichrist.”

Rome is unmistakable; although Antichrist is not identified, the figure is properly applied. This is pretty fair interpretation, don’t you think? Especially since the Roman interpreters see the ten horns here as representing the same powers in Revelation 17. The same beast is mentioned in Revelation several times. Rome is identified in those places too.

The 13th chapter of Revelation has a picture of three entities. The first of these, a beast with seven heads and ten horns is based on the seventh chapter of Daniel. The fourth beast of Daniel and the beast of Revelation 13 are the same, and so agree our Roman Catholic friends. The following is a footnote from chapter 13 from the Roman Catholic version of the Bible.

Rev. 13:1 “The picture of the first beast is based on the seventh chapter of Daniel. This beast is the figure of the kingdoms of this world, kingdoms founded on passion and selfishness, which in every age are antagonistic to Christ and seek to oppress the servants of God. Imperial Rome represents this power.”

It could not be said better. The two-horned beast of chapter 13 is not identified in this version. But further in Rev. 17, there is a picture of a whorish woman who is riding the same beast and in this place the footnote says, “The beast spoken of here seems to be the Roman Empire as in Chapter 13.”

Babylon is another figure of the Antichrist. The Antichrist appears under the figure of (1) a little horn in Daniel that rises up out of a fragmented Roman Empire among ten other horns; (2) a beast that looks like Jesus (two horns like a lamb) but speaks like the Devil. This Antichrist beast gives power to a wounded Roman Empire and makes an image to the Roman Empire in Rev. 13. (3) In Rev. 17 Antichrist is represented under the figure of a scarlet colored woman, called a whore and Babylon, who rides the power of the Roman Empire.

Incidently where Babylon is mentioned in Rev 14:8 the Roman Catholic Bible footnote in that place reads:

“Babylon: In Jewish and Christian circles, Babylon was a synonym for Rome.”

Gibbon in of his “Decline and Fall” says the same in describing the belief of early Christians, Re: Rev 14 and 17.

“Whilst the happiness and glory of a temporal reign were promised to the disciples of Christ, the most dreadful calamities were denounced against an unbelieving world. The edification of a new Jerusalem was to advance by equal steps with the destruction of the mystic Babylon; and as long as the emperors who reigned before Constantine persisted in the profession of idolatry, the epithet of babylon was applied to the city and to the empire of Rome” Vol 1 pg 243

Thus the Roman Empire is clearly seen as being pictured by these figures. The Fourth beast of Daniel and the seven headed ten horned beast of Revelation represents the Roman Empire. We are now a long way toward understanding that chapter. The first beast is the Roman Empire. We will continue our discussion of Revelation 13, after a short discussion on Antichrist.

Antichrist is not a Person

In Daniel 7 the ten horns are taken to be kingdoms amongst whom the Roman Empire would be scattered. Among them would rise a little horn. What is a horn? The ten horns are kingdoms. What is the little horn then? It, too, must be a kingdom, not a person.

In Rev 13, Antichrist is pictured as a beast. What are the four beasts of Daniel. They are Empires. The first beast of Revelation 13 is taken by all to be an empire. What therefore is the second beast who looks like Jesus but talks like the devil? That’s right, not a person. If the beasts are empires, then the lamb-like beast is a little empire. Antichrist is thought by some to be a soon coming person. A man who will sit on a throne in Jerusalem.

But Rev. 17 gives the picture of Antichrist as a woman dressed in scarlet who rides the power of the Roman Empire. Is Antichrist a woman? She is called “Babylon, mystery, the Mother of harlots.” Antichrist is not a woman. The picture of Rev 17 is as the others, of some false religious power which assumes the power of the Roman Empire and claims to have the power of God. Antichrist is not a person. Antichrist is predicted to be a political power rising out of the Roman Empire, and the church as in II Thess. 2, which we will notice later.

Revelation 13:1-10 pictures the Roman Empire as being wounded and fighting against God’s people. From verse 11 – 14 the lamb-like beast is described. In verse 14 he makes an image to the first beast, and uses the image to control the minds and economic areas of men. In verses 17 and 18 he identifies the name of the beast as 666.

2:37 You, O king, [are] a king of kings: for the God of heaven has given you a kingdom, power, and strength, and glory. 2:38 And wheresoever the children of men dwell, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the heaven has he given into your hand, and has made you ruler over them all. You [are] this head of gold. 2:39 And after you shall arise another kingdom inferior to you, and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule over all the earth. 2:40 And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron:

In the eighth chapter, Daniel describes in a vision the incredibly accurate occurrence of the Medo-Persian struggle with the rise of the Greeks. The first kingdom of the Greek empire defeats the Medo-Persians inside their own territory and then in the height of power the first kingdom is broken and divided into four horns or kingdoms. The incredible part is that Daniel not only gives this precise outline years before 325 B.C. when the events happened, but he also names the participants by name, before they had risen to power!

8:20 The ram which thou sawest having [two] horns [are] the kings of Media and Persia. 8:21 And the rough goat [is] the king of Grecia: and the great horn that [is] between his eyes [is] the first king.

Thus are the first three empires of the four named by name in the Bible.

The fourth beast is described in Daniel 2, and 7, in much greater detail than these here named. Certainly, if God inspired Daniel to name 1. Babylon; 2. Medo-Persia; 3. Greece; 4. ?, He could have named the fourth beast. The fourth beast ought to be named. He is described in greater length in the book of Revelation where he, again, is not named.


There is good reason why the fourth beast is named in a code in Revelation. The number 666 is the number of the name of the fourth beast. The text says so — no matter the many voices who see some mysterious person arising during the last seven years of the world’s history, who will have the number. The number is clearly stated to be the name of the fourth beast. So 666 ought to be the name Roman. Significantly the text rules out the name being Rome, it must be Roman, because it is the name of a single person as well as the name of the beast. Rome is a place. Roman is the name of both the empire, the beast, and a citizen, a single person, who is also a Roman.

We now use the Arabic number system with numerals 1 through 9 and then adding a zero, invented by the Arabs in the eighth century. Previous to that time numbers were attributed to each letter of the alphabet. A = 1, B = 2, C = 3, … J = 10 then K would not be 11 but 20 and L = 30 etc. Continuing, R would be 90, S would be 100, T = 200 and so on. Any name therefore would have a numerical value. Both Hebrew and Greek alphabets used this system. [See Appendix D.]

It is well known, and has been for centuries, that the name Roman in both Greek and incredibly also in Hebrew has the number we are looking for. It ought to have it. The number is the name of the beast, and the name of the beast is Roman. Every Historical interpreter with few exceptions, from Irenaeus forward, has recorded this fact. In the old world Tertullian, and Hippolytus did. Isaac Newton, the scientist, did in the 17th century; Robert Fleming at the turn of the 17th century; Bishop Newton in the 18th century; Faber, Barnes, Elliott, Cunningham, Johnson, and a host of others from almost every denomination of Protestantism in the 19th century.

The book of Revelation and New Testament are written in Greek and the rest of the Scriptures are written in Hebrew. In Greek the name Roman is Lateinos; it has the number. In Hebrew, the name Roman when modifying empire or beast is feminine, Ro-mi-ith, (empire and beast are feminine in Hebrew). The Hebrew form also has the number! Would it be possible to find any other name which would have the number in both Biblical languages? This must be more than coincidence. Click here to see the Greek and Hebrew Number systems and Bishop Thomas Newton’s chart which he composed in 1750. To see a much more elaborate treatment of the number 666 by Michael Scheifler click here.

My good friend David Wood, upon readinghis fact said, “I would think it incredible if any two words would have any identical number, let alone 666!”

But why is the beast named in a mystery code? Answer: The Roman Empire fulfilled the prophecies concerning its persecution of the woman, (Rev. 12), and, “make war with the saints and overcome them,” (Rev.13:7). The Roman Empire waged ten official persecutions against the church for almost 300 years. These were legally sanctioned by the senate and carried out under the Roman legal system. The Christians were tortured, whipped, burned, torn apart, beheaded, thrown to lions, and crucified by official Roman authority according to law, for three centuries. Pastors were killed, Bibles confiscated and burned, church buildings destroyed, and the flocks scattered.

How much worse might the Roman persecutors have been if they found their nation named by name as a beast in the Holy writings of those they persecuted? The conditions were bad enough without adding more fuel to the fire. So God couched the name in a mystery. He called the fourth beast 666, so no one could know it except the mind that has wisdom. The first three beasts of Daniel are named by name in the Bible. The fourth beast of Daniel ought to be named in the Bible. He is; his (It would would be more accurate to refer to the beast as “It” or “She” since in Greek, the word “beast” is a neuter gender noun, while in Hebrew the word “beast” is a femine gender noun) name is 666. Did the early Christians so understand it?

They should have. They read the book of Daniel and could count and know that Rome was the fourth Empire to come on the earth. They could see in Daniel that it would pass away by being divided into ten kingdoms and Antichrist would rise among the ten kingdoms of a divided Roman Empire. See this understanding in II Thess. 2, which is commonly understood to refer to the same Antichrist as the other passages. In this passage Paul is correcting an impression that the second coming of Christ was imminent. It was not imminent, and he was telling them why. First, though, he says that the source of the misunderstanding is not from him:

II Thessalonians Chapter 2

(1) Now we beseech you, brethren, by the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by our gathering together unto him, (2) That you be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. Paul says, no word, letter, nor inference came from him that the second coming was imminent. In fact, he says, it is not. Something that they know about has to happen first:

(3) Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, This is often, but erroneously, taken to mean that the church must fall away first. But that cannot be so. Paul says below this that the man of sin will come after the falling away. In verse 6 he says, and now you know what holds him back. In verse 7 Paul says, that which is now holding back Antichrist will continue to do so until it be taken out of the way. Paul states here that something that now exists in his time, that they knew about, which when I was yet with you I told you these things, was holding back Antichrist.

If Paul had told them about the fourth beast of Daniel, he would have told them that as long as the Roman empire stands the Antichrist will not come, because it will rise up out of a shattered Roman Empire and then that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; 4 Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, He is to arise out of the church which is the true Temple from the time of the coming of the Holy Spirit to this day; …shewing himself that he is God. This is the same description as the little horn of Daniel and the lamb-like beast of Rev. 13. He arrogates to himself the power of the Roman Empire but masquerades as the Lamb sitting in the church!

Paul reminds them that he told them and that they know what it is that holds back Antichrist. (5) Remember ye not, that, when I was yet with you, I told you these things? He does not tell them plainly by name who or what it is even though it is something they both know. (6) And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his time. He further states that the kind of thing Antichrist will bring is already at work. (7) For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: He then repeats that the entity that they both knew about, which they had talked about while he was with them would continue to restrain the coming of Antichrist until he or it was taken away: only he who now restrains will restrain, until he be taken out of the way. Thus Paul knowing the book of Daniel would say: “then after the departure of the Roman Empire, as we all know from Daniel; (8) then shall that Wicked be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the brightness of his coming.

Early Christian Writers

Would it not be interesting to know what early Christians thought about these passages? Writers whose lives overlap the lives of apostles are called Apostolic Fathers. Their writings are fragmentary and few have been preserved. Christian writers who were born after the death of the apostles but before 325 A.D. are called Ante-Nicene Fathers. They wrote before the council of Nicea which marked the triumph of the Christian religion in the empire. Ancient writers who lived after the council of Nicea are called Post-Nicene Fathers. There are many writings which have survived and been preserved from these times.

Would it not be interesting to see what someone thought about these passages hardly fifty years after they were written, and before they were fulfilled? It is easier to interpret prophecy after its fulfillment. Let us see how Irenaeus did before the fulfillment. We can sympathize with him if he doesn’t get it completely right due to not being able to parallel the prophecy with the events of history. But the incredible thing is that the “fathers” knew the general outline of future events. They, therefore, were not in ignorance, that that day would overtake them as a thief.

(I Thess 5:4) But ye, brethren, are not in darkness, that that day should overtake you as a thief.

Why were they not in darkness? Because they knew that as long as the Roman Empire had not fallen the second coming was not imminent.

Irenaeus was born about 135 and lived into the next century. He wrote a commentary on portions of Daniel and Revelation, especially of the thirteenth chapter and the seventh chapter of Daniel. The epitome of the chapter (XX1) on the Antichrist in his writings begins:

“John and Daniel have predicted the dissolution and desolation of the Roman Empire, which shall precede the end of the world,…” [See Schaff, Philip, editor; Ante-Nicene Fathers, Pub. Erdmans, Grand Rapids. 1971 The Ante-Nicene and Post Nicene Fathers are considered in the same way as the classical writers. The have been published numberless times. Erdmans has published a multi-volume set well edited. Irenaeus; Against Heresies XXVI,1]

Irenaeus had no difficulty in interpreting Daniel: “concerning the ten kings who shall then arise, among whom the empire that now rules the earth shall be partitioned.”[Irenaeus, ibid.]

He believed the Roman Empire would pass away and be divided into ten kingdoms, and so it did happen in his future. There was no way for him to know that except through the prophecies. The opinion of those living in the empire was that it would last forever — they called it “eternal Rome.” But seeing that John and Daniel had predicted the decline and dissolution of the empire into ten kingdoms is not all that Irenaeus saw. He said, “It is manifest that he that shall come,” he means the little horn, “shall slay three” of the 10 horns, “and subject the remainder to his power.” He believed that the coming entity would overcome three and then dominate the other seven states left to a divided Roman Empire.

He calls the power that would rise in the place of the Roman Empire an “apostasy,” and warns that God, “has prepared eternal fire for every kind of apostasy.” In quoting Justin Martyr, who lived before Irenaeus, he considers that Satan is the author of “apostasy” and eternal fire is “reserved for all apostasy.” This is a remarkable passage in that Irenaeus foresees the division of the Roman Empire as yet to come and sees the Antichrist power rising out of the church, for that is the meaning of apostasy. It refers to an enemy, not from without but one who rises up from within.

A few paragraphs further Irenaeus makes the first known attempt to interpret the number 666. Remember that this is only a short time after Revelation was written. It was also at the time that the Roman Empire was at its zenith — the most peaceful, successful time of the empire. It is the period of the Five Good Emperors or the Pax Romana, when there was no war within the empire and no unsuccessful military action outside the empire for a hundred years.

Irenaeus reminds us that since 666 — the name — has not been fulfilled as yet in a coming power, (which he, as most others of the period, thought to be a single man), then it is wise to be cautious in looking around for the right name. These interpreters living before the fall of the Roman empire did not see the anti-christian power that would rise up and persecute true believers for centuries — they understood everything else but the time frame. But they did know that he would rise up in a shattered Roman Empire. They did not have the hindsight we have to see that an anti-christian kingdom did rise up out of the Christian religion and seize the authority of God and man; and with the falsely assumed authority of God and the sword of man, attempt to dominate, and actually dominate, European and world politics for almost 1300 years. [ibid.]

But he makes some startling observations on the number:

“It is not for the want of names that contain the number that I say this, …for there are many names that can be found that have the number… for the name Evanthas contains the required number” [Then this remarkable statement,] “Then also Lateinos has the number 666 and it is a very probable solution, this being the name of the last kingdom [of the four seen by Daniel]. For the Latins are they who at present bear rule. I will not, however, make any boast over this [coincidence].”

This comment was made barely before the ink was dry on the book of Revelation, and although it is made with caution, those who followed used more boldness in the application of the name. But Irenaeus knew certain things. He knew that the Roman Empire had to fall and that an Antichrist would arise in its ruins and that the second coming of Christ would be after that. And He was right!


Tertullian was a Christian living in Carthage, born after Irenaeus, about the year 150. He carries the interpretation forward. In his essay, On The Resurrection of the Flesh, he speaks of the coming Antichrist and quotes from the second Thessalonian letter. He says:

“That day shall not come, unless, indeed, there come a falling away, he means indeed of this present empire…and he who now hinders must hinder, until he be taken our ot the way. What obstacle is there but the Roman state, the falling away of which, by being scattered into ten kingdoms shall introduce Antichrist upon its ruins?” [Tertullian, On the Resurrection of the Flesh, chap. XXIV.]

Here the prophecy of Daniel and the Thessalonian passage are put together to predict the future. Tertullian could not have believed in the imminent return of Christ. He, like Irenaeus, would have said the Roman empire has to fall first and be divided. An Antichrist will come but not before the fall of the Roman empire and Christ will come after that. He not only had a correct view of the future from his time, but he was able to give the obviously true meaning of a passage of scripture over which most still stumble.


Hippolytus wrote about the year 200. He is thought, by some, to be in the line of Roman bishops which the Catholic church would claim reaches back to Peter. If he was, he did not know that made him the POPE. His writings give no implication that he would think of himself as a super bishop much less the Supreme Pontiff! In fact he takes for granted that all the church understood that Lateinos is the name of the beast.

“The wound of the first beast was healed and he (the second beast) was to make the image speak, that is to say to become powerful; and it is manifest to all, that those who at present still hold power are Latins. If then we take the name as the name of a single man it becomes Latinus. Wherefore we ought neither to give it out as if this were certainly his name, nor again ignore the fact that he may not be otherwise designated.” [Hippolytus, Treatise on Christ and Antichrist (50) pg. 215.]

Hippolytus is convinced that the name of the beast is Latin and that the word Latinus, or Latin man, has the number 666. He then makes some faltering attempts to name the three kingdoms to be taken over by Antichrist. Since they are in the future to him he has little success. But Rome has been identified, and he living in Rome at the time knows it is to fall. He continues:

“These things shall then be in the future, beloved, and when the three horns are cut off he will begin to show himself as God.” [ ibid.]

Hippolytus has a composite of Daniel and Revelation in his fulfillment. He has had to put together the fourth beast of Daniel and the little horn with the beasts of Revelation 13 and 17 as well as the image to the beast to make this interpretation. Out of that he has properly identified Rome as the beast and has the name 666 identified with the Romans because, “they still, at present, bear rule.” In other words they are the fourth empire from the Babylonians as per Daniel’s prophecy. I am impressed.

Between the years 250 to 300 some unnamed person wrote comments called scolia in the margin of the writings of Hippolytus. They are really good and there is a detailed exposition of Daniel 7, where each of the beasts are analyzed and interpreted. He says, Babylon, of course, is the first, the bear is Persia, the leopard is Greece and the four heads of the leopard are the fourfold division of Alexander’s kingdom. He names each of the principalities. He makes a very accurate historical interpretation of Daniel’s prophecy. The scolia then go on to the fourth beast:

“…a fourth beast. Now that there has arisen no other kingdom after that of the Greeks except that which stands sovereign at present, is manifest to all….for there is no other kingdom [bearing rule over all the earth] remaining after this one, but from it will spring 10 horns.

“And it had ten horns, for as the prophecy of the leopard with four heads…was fulfilled, and Alexander’s kingdom was divided into four principalities, so also now, we ought to look for the ten horns which are to spring up from [the fourth beast] when the time of the beast shall be fulfilled, and the little horn, which is Antichrist shall appear suddenly in their midst.”[Hippolytus, Fragments from the Commentaries, Scolia 6-9, pg. 189.]

In reading the prophecies, the author of the scolia has concluded that the four world empires spoken of by Daniel will end with the Romans. He concludes that the imperial system will then end! (This is a very clever and accurate deduction for someone who has not the advantage of hindsight.) He says there will be no further united empire after this one! What incredibly accurate insight which gave him a view of the future that we know was correct. (Notice with the lengthening of the time since the giving of the prophecy the fulfillment is no longer expected to be sudden.) That is, the sudden appearance of Antichrist is now seen to take place after the empire is divided for some space of time. The same unfolding of events, rather than instant fulfillment, is surmised in Hippolytus above, i.e. “he shall begin to show.”

The scolia goes on to suggest patience and prayer, that we might avoid these things which he is convinced will come. If we have the date of this scolia correct, it is ironic that the author is living contemporaneously with, or just slightly before, the severest persecution the church would ever suffer, yet he shows great concern for the time of the little horn.

“So we ought not to anticipate the counsel of God, but exercise patience and prayer that we fall not on such times. We should not, however, refuse to believe that these things will come to pass. For if the things which the prophet predicted in former times have not been realized, then we need not look for these things. But if those former things did happen in their proper seasons, as was foretold, then these things also shall certainly be fulfilled.” ibid.St. John Chrysostom

Chrysostom’s name means “golden mouth.” He must have been a great orator. Chrysostom moves us ahead a little less than 100 years. He died in 408 A.D. This would place his death just two years before the first sack of Rome, which historical interpreters apply to the first trumpet, being the first of the four invasions and sacks of Rome which would bring the Roman empire to its end, in the year 476. The fall of Rome therefore, which all these interpreters have been looking for, is now just imminent to Chrysostom.

His works are preserved in “Homilies.” In “Homily IV” he left a commentary on II Thess 2:6-9. The passage on the man of sin, which synchronizes with the little horn of Daniel and the lamb-like beast of Revelation, has been commented on by most of the previously cited writers. His incidental comments, on some who were saying the gifts of the Spirit hold back Antichrist, are interesting.

“What is that which withholds,” and “why Paul expresses it so obscurely. What then is it that hinders him [Antichrist] from being revealed? Some indeed say the grace of the Spirit, but others the Roman Empire, to whom I most of all accede. Because if he meant the Spirit, he would not have spoken obscurely, but plainly, that, even now the grace of the Spirit, that is, the gifts, withhold him. Otherwise he ought now to have come, if he was about to come when the gifts ceased; for they have long since ceased!” [Chrysostom, Homily IV, 1]

This is a most amazing comment on the presence of charismatic gifts, or actually their non-presence in the church at the time of Chrysostom. He is obviously a Bible believer and believer in the Holy Spirit, and the gifts. He just knows they have ceased and could not be “that which hinders,” because they are gone, and the Roman Empire has not fallen yet to invite the coming of the man of sin. The use of the information about the fall of the Roman empire is further described as he goes on to explain why Paul spoke covertly about what “withholds.”

“Because he said this of the Roman Empire he naturally … speaks covertly and darkly. For he did not wish to bring upon himself … useless dangers. For if he had said, that after … a while the Roman Empire would be dissolved, they would immediately have even overwhelmed him as a pestilent person, and all the [other] faithful as living and [seeking] this end.” [ibid]

Speaking of how long it might be till he comes he said:

“And he did not say it would be quickly, although he is [often] saying that [he is to come] – but what? ‘that he may be revealed in his own season.’… (The mystery of iniquity already works) He speaks [of] Nero as if he were a type of Antichrist. … But he did not wish to point him out plainly and this not from cowardice, but instructing us not to bring upon ourselves unnecessary enmities, when there is nothing to call for it. So indeed he says here: Only there is one that restrains now, until he be taken out of the way, that is, when the Roman Empire is taken out of the way, then he shall come, and naturally. For as long as the fear of this empire lasts, no one will willingly exalt himself, but when that is dissolved, he will attack the anarchy and endeavor to seize upon the government both of man and of God!” ibid.


Jerome, the translator of the Latin Vulgate Bible, upon which version all later Roman Catholic vernacular translations would be based, including the English Douay version, was born about 340 and died in 420. He lived well into the first of the Barbarian invasions and actually saw his home town on the border of Dalmatia destroyed by the marauding Goths. He, as those preceding, sees the fall of Rome as necessary to the coming of the Antichrist. The events of his later life would have anticipated the event of the fall, and those living just a few years longer, would have seen the fall of the Roman Empire. Of II Thess. he says:

“that antichrist shall sit in the temple of God, either at Jerusalem (as some imagine) or in the church (as we more truly judge) showing himself that he is Christ, and the son of God: and unless the Roman Empire be first desolated, and antichrist precede, Christ shall not come.” [Newton, Thomas; Dissertations on the Prophecies; in two volumes, tenth edition, London 1804; Vol. II, pgs. 115, 116.]

There are others who came to the same conclusions about the fall of the Roman Empire and its division into ten kingdoms based on the seventh chapter of Daniel. We have not quoted them but it might be noted that Justyn Martyr, Origen, Cyril of Jerusalem, Lactantius, Ambrose, Austin, and others, left writings with similar views, i.e. the Roman Empire will be dissolved into ten kingdoms, and Antichrist will arise among them preceding the second coming of Christ.

None of these Christians were in ignorance that that day would over take them as a thief. They knew the second coming of Christ was not imminent in their lifetime. Only those like Jerome, in the latter time of the empire, thought the time was near, because the fall of the empire was near.

Just as Chrysostom, others knew the Roman Empire would fall and on its ruins “out of the church of Christ,” one would rise who would feign himself to be Christ, and “seize the power of God and man.” What power was it that actually did step into the vacuum of power left by fallen Rome and with the name Roman sit in the church, seize the authority of God and man, then arrogate three states to itself, and dominate the other seven, for hundreds of years? Does the reader need a clearer picture of the past to name the Antichrist? These brethren of the past gave us this clear picture before it happened!
Appendix B:

Premillenial Interpretations do Violence to the Prophecy

The following diagram illustrates the way that some interpreters force the scripture into their interpretation instead of diagraming the scripture and fitting the interpretation to the scripture. Such a forced interpretation as that illustrated below could not be done by our Omniscient God, He would not create a freak to represent what is real. Imagine a god who said that “History will look like a statue” and then to match the interpretation you have to draw toes as long as the rest of the statue. Such a statue has to lie on his side because he can not stand on such deformed feet.

Since premillenial scholars know that the division of the Roman Empire into 10 kingdoms took place about 500 years after the advent of Jesus of Nazareth and they err in not believing “the little stone” has hit the image in the feet as yet, then they are forced to draw toes that are 1500 years long. The diagram is not actually proportionate however since an honest picture of the toes make them 1 and 1/3 times longer that the complete standing image.

The rest of the statue is proportionate to the time periods that each symbolic portion predicted. Surely God did not predict history represented by a freak statue.

Prophetic Time-Line for the Historicist means this:…….. Historicist explanation of the time times and half time, and other time prophecies in Daniel and the Revelation.

Read her blog posts here
A day for a Year
Of Calendars and Kings
Babylonian Calendar 
No two ancient kingdoms used the same method of keeping track of time.  Some used a Solar calendar, some used a Lunar Calendar, and some used a Stellar or Sidereal Calendar. on who was in charge and what things were important to the kingdom dictated how their calendar was made up.  Most calendars started in the spring, but not all.  In order to perpetuate the myth that the king was a god, great pains would be taken to know when a certain star or constellation might ascend or decline.  One could become rich if one were able to ascertain this kind of information for the king.
Egyptian Calendar
Egyptian Calendar
Roman Calendar
Roman Calendar
It was not until Pope Gregory XIII, in 1582, that a reliable method of time keeping was devised.  Roman Catholic countries adopted the Gregorian calendar immediately by order of the Pope. countries, being naturally suspicious of the Pope, did not readily accept the calendar but did slowly follow suit over the next two hundred years.  
They understood he was the anti-christ fulfilling prophecy by changing times [Dan 7:25], but begrudgingly realized that it was more accurate than the pagan Julian calendar they were using.   This is why people like George Washington and Beethoven will have two birthdays listed; they were born in the year their country changed over to the Gregorian calendar.

Note: Pope Gregory XIII also made a significant change in first century dating by “losing” the six years that astronomers had determined the calendars were off by.   See End Note: Soli-Lunar Cycles

Fortunately, throughout time, God has provided men with the ability to solve these difficult problems and they have been successful in matching up all the different calendars coming up with accurate dates in antiquity.  These dates were compiled by the great chronologist of history; Sir Isaac Newton, Clinton, Laplace, James Bowman Lindsay, Wiseler, Benson, Brown, Mann, Ideler, Biachini, Sanclemeti, etc.  Since the purpose of Biblical Prophecy is to foretell history, the interpretation and fulfillment must fit within the boundaries of generally recognized historical chronologies.

M. de Cheseaux

FYI: During the mid 1700’s a Swiss astronomer and chronologist, M. Jean Philippe Loys de Cheseaux (published 1754), while attempting to fix the date of Christ’s crucifixion discovered four soli-lunar epacts (reconciliation of solar and lunar calendars) previously unknown to astronomers. were discovered by examining the 1260 day/yr, 1290 day/yr, 1335 day/yr, and the 2300 day/yr prophecies in the book of Daniel and using recently invented telescopes and accurate timepieces.  M. de Cheseaux found a near perfect method of harmonizing the lunar, solar, and sidereal calendars that reconciles them to one another.   He determined that every 1260 years the sun and moon align within 5 minutes, allowing the calendars to reconcile.  Needless, to say, M. de Cheseaux’s work points to the obvious, that our Creator is the perfect and complete historian and that the stars do give signs.  The 30 days and additional 45 days of Daniel Chapter 12 are required to harmonize the calendars.

Times Explained
Day for a Year
The Historicist views that a day set forth in prophecy denotes a year in history. This understanding comes from studying numerous scriptures that point to the symbolic use of days and weeks to denote years.
  • “At that very hour some Pharisees came, and said to him, get away from here, for Herod wants to kill you.  And he said to them, “Go and tell that fox, ‘Behold, I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I finish my course.  Nevertheless, I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the day following; for it cannot be that a prophet should perish away from Jerusalem.” Luke 13:32

Notice He says, “ I have today, tomorrow, and the next day” (the third day He His goal) Christ’s ministry lasted 3 1/2 years by counting the Passovers in the gospels. [John 2:13; 6:4; 18:39]  This is a day for a year.

  • They refused to go into the land after the spies came back with a terrifying report.  For their unbelief, they were kept out of the land 40 years, a year for every day they had been spying.   [Num 14:1-38]
  • “Then lie upon your left side, and I will lay the punishment of the house of Israel upon you; for the number of the days that you lie upon it, you shall bear their punishment; For I assign to you a number of days, three hundred and ninety days, equal to the number of the years of their punishment; so long shall you bear the punishment of the house of Israel.  And when you have completed these, you shall lie down a second time, but on your right side, and bear the punishment of the house of Judah; forty days I assign you, a day for each year.  And you shall set your face toward the siege of Jerusalem, with your arm bared; and you shall prophesy against the city.  And, behold, I will put cords upon you, so that you cannot turn from one side to the other, till you have completed the days of your siege.” Ezek 4:4-8
Ezekiel chapter 4 records the symbolic act of the prophet laying on each of his sides as being one day for each year of their punishment.  After the reign of Solomon the kingdom had divided into separate nations, Israel in the north and Judah in the south.  Ezekiel lies on his left side 390 days for Israel and on his right side 40 days for Judah.   
Each day equals one year of judgment.
A Year or a Time Equals 360 Days
A Historicist views that a year or a time in prophecy is the equivalent of a 360-day year.   Studying numerous scriptures and having an understanding of the historical grammatical interpretation leads this understanding.
  • Noah’s year was 360 days long:    [Gen 7:11, 17,24; 8:3-6]
  1. Noah entered the Ark in the second month on the 17th day.

  1. The waters abated in the seventh month on the seventeenth day.

  1. The waters had prevailed for a total of 150 days.

  1. This breaks down to five months of 30 days each.

  1. Conclusion:  If each month is 30 days and there are 12 month in a year; then Noah’s year  would be 360 days.  The story of Noah is the only place in the Bible where the length of a month is defined.
  • In ancient Babylon and Egypt, a “time” or year of 360 days was based on the sidereal or the elliptical path of the stars.  Astronomers determined 12 months of 30 days each made up a year of 360 even days.  It did not follow the solar cycle, and had to be reconciled to the solar year by the addition of 5 days at the end of each year. Daniel lived in Babylon when he wrote the prophecy.
  1. Archeological evidence exists that the Egyptians and Chinese also used a calendar of 360 days as early as 4000 BC.

  1. The Babylonian astronomers, of whose science Daniel would have been most familiar, followed the Egyptian use of a 360-day calendar.  The calendar was reconciled with an extra month every time they realized they were off.
Times Used in Prophecy
God’s covenant with Israel is found in the books of Moses or the Books of the Covenant. His for them was that they would have an intimate relationship, if they would be faithful and do all that He asked, keep my Sabbaths and reverence my sanctuary. [Lev 25:55-26:18]  If they were faithful they would never want for anything, no enemy would harm them and there would always be food.
Every seventh day was a day of rest, a Sabbath.
Every seventh year the Lord commanded the Israelites to set aside and rest the land as unto the Lord.  [Lev 25:1-7]  This is called the Sabbatical year for the land.
Every forty-nine years there would be a Jubilee Year (the 50th year also the 1st year) wholly set aside unto the Lord.  Slaves were to be set free, land was to be returned to its original owner, and no crops were to be planted.  [Lev 25:8-34]
However, if they were not faithful, Israel would be punished for disobedience with specified consequences.   Four times Moses repeated that their chastisement would be for seven times[Lev 26:18, 21, 24, 28]  Wild beast would take their children and animals, armies would invade, there would be famine, and the land would become desolate until the land had enjoyed its Sabbaths.
Israel failed to keep the covenant.
  • They worshipped the golden calf early in their exile from Egypt.  [Ex. 32:7-35] In Shittim
  • The people played the harlot with the daughters of Moab and worshipped Moab’s gods   [Num.25:1-18]
  • They refused to go into the land after the spies came back with a terrifying report.  For their unbelief, they were kept out of the land 40 years, a year for every day they had been spying.   [Num 14:1-38]
  • Israel continued in idolatry constantly going after Ashtaroth and Baal.  [Judg 2:11, 10:13; I Sam 7:3-4, 12:10; I King 11:5, 33 to name just a few] God remembers their disobedience and judgment or the sudden terror led them into the Babylonian captivity that lasted for 70 years.  [Jer 29:10]
  • Israel failed to keep the entire covenant, specifically Jubilees, upon returning to the land. “And if in spite of this you will not hearken to me, then I will chastise you again SEVEN TIMES for your sins.” [Lev 26:18] In Lev 26:18, 21, 24, and 28 the Lord repeats four times that various calamities would befall Israel seven times for their sins.  The sword, pestilence, and famine would follow them and ultimately Israel would be scattered among the nations, leaving the land to rest in desolation for its Sabbaths.
  • Since then Israel has always been under foreign domination. Moses’ final message to Israel found in Deuteronomy 29:16 – 30:10 warns that they would be scattered among the nations until a final restoration.  The final restoration will not take place until after the duration of seven times, or 7 x 360 = 2520 years of Sabbath rest. [Luke 21:24, Dan 4:32]
The Gentile King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon had conquered Judah, by 606BC.

Nebuchadnezzar, a youth, was taken captive along with others from Judah to Babylon as part of God’s 70 year redemption for the land.  Trained by the Chaldean’s in their language and culture, Daniel proved to be a wise counselor and gifted in the interpretation of dreams and visions.
Nebuchadnezzar’s relates a dream [Dan. 4:1-37] in which he is portrayed as a great tree, cut down for seven times”. This is significant to Nebuchadnezzar, as during his lifetime it was traditional to use the icon of a tree to represent the king.   It was called the Mystical Tree of Life.  At the thought of his tree, being cut down Nebuchadnezzar is understandably upset, as the cutting down of the king/tree was a sign for death.   
Daniel assures him that he will not die, only live like a beast for seven years.  Then he will come back fully restored knowing the God who rules all things.   Much relieved that he was not going to die, Nebuchadnezzar forgot the rest of the interpretation and when he least expected it God struck him down.
Nebuchadnezzar by William Blake

Nebuchadnezzar by William Blake
Nebuchadnezzar’s bestial character typifies the bestial prophecy of Dan 7 in which Nebuchadnezzar was both the ruling head and representative of their character. [Dan 2:37-38]   These gentile empires were ignorant of God, and idolatrous persecutors of the people of God.  However, at the end of his punishment, he acknowledged the Most High. praised and blessed the one who lives forever.   This infers that these bestial kingdoms will some day acknowledge God. [Isa 45:23; Rom 14:11; Phil 2:10-11]    Just as his bestial character typifies the bestial kingdoms the seven years typifies the seven times that the bestial kingdoms would reign.  So, these kingdoms will rule over God’s people for 2520 years, typically called the Times of the Gentiles. [Lk 21:24]
The Times of the Gentiles 2520 Years
It is the viewpoint of the Historicist that the usage of SEVEN TIMES in prophetic language determines the length of times for the gentile reign and punishment of Israel for the breaking of the covenants.  In addition, they view seven times to be equivalent to 360 years times 7, for a total of 2520 years.  This constitutes the FULL TIMES OF THE GENTILES.  This punishment for breaking Sabbath covenants is to end when the Holy People are no longer trodden down. [Dan 8:13]
Determining a “start” date is not as easy as it sounds.  Does one begin with Nabonassar as the first gentile kingdom represented by the Head of Gold, or with Nebuchadnezzar who is told by that he is the head of gold?   Only in the completion of the prophecy does the time frame become clearer.
Reconciling Sidereal, Lunar and Solar Calendars:
  • Today we use a solar calendar of 365.25 days. The solar calendar is based on the hypothetical motion of the sun.  The .25 day is handled by the addition of an extra day every four years.
  • The Jews use a lunar calendar of 354 days.   This is 11 days short and after approximately 3 years it is necessary to add a month in order to catch up to solar time.
  • Astronomers, Navigators, and Farmers use a Sidereal calendar of 360 days.  This is the length of Noah’s year as recorded in the Bible. [Gen. 7:11-24, 8:2-4]  A Sidereal calendar is measured by the apparent motion of fixed stars.   
  • Today a sidereal day is the interval between two successive transits of the first point of Aries over the upper meridian of any place, equal to 23 hrs 56 min 4.09 sec of mean solar time.  A sidereal day has 24 sidereal hours, each of 60 sidereal minutes, each minute of 60 sidereal seconds.   A Sidereal calendar is adjusted via charts according to the movement of the sun. Another consideration, when reckoning time-periods is that it is not always possible to assign a single date.  More often than not, there is a period of time leading up to an “era or epoch” and a period of time coming out of an era.  We do not have exact dates for the beginning of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, or the Modern Age.  The same is often true of events in antiquity.

The Biblical prophetic seven times is equal to 2520 years.  When working with lunar years, in order to adjust to our solar calendar, 2520 will be equivalent to only 2442 solar years.   Likewise, 2520 sidereal years are equivalent to only 2484 solar years.
The day Nabonassar was crowned the first king of Babylon is the earliest possible starting date for the beginning of the bestial kingdoms, February 26, 747BC.
Ω  747 – 539 BC                    Babylonian Empire (Gold)
Ω  539 – 334 BC                    Medio-Persian Empire (Silver)
Ω  334 – 65 BC                      Greek Empire (Bronze)
Ω  65 BC – 476 AD               Pagan Roman Empire (Iron)
Ω  476 AD – Today              Roman Empire (Iron and Clay – the ten kingdoms)
“Seven times” equals 2520 solar years.
2520 lunar years is equivalent to 2442 solar years.
2520 sidereal years is 2484 solar years.
X                                   2520 YEARS                                   X
Lunar: 747 BC —————————– 476 AD —————————- 1689 AD
Nabonassar  crowned                          fall of Rome                           Treaty of Carlowitz
1st king of Babylon
Solar: 747   ——————————————————————- 1774 AD
Nabonassar crowed                                                                        Accession of Louis XVI
1st king of Babylon                                                                                  Era of Retribution  *
Solar: 723  ———————————————————— 1798
Samaria 1st besieged by                                                                   Napoleon 1st
Shalmaneser                                                                            Counsel of the Republic
Solar: 675/6   ——————————————————-   1844
Esarhaddon invaded Israel                                                      edict of Toleration  **
Lunar: 587     ————————————————-        1860***
Fall of Jerusalem                                                          Lebanon under Christian Govt.
Syrian Massacres occurred brought in European intervention
Solar: 605     ——————————————————-    1915
Nebuchadnezzar makes Judah a Tributary                                  World War I
Solar: 604     ——————————————————-    1917
WWI Belfore Declaration
Solar: 598      ——————————————————-     1923
Birth of Cyrus the Persian                                                      last Caliph dies
Ezekiel taken to Babylon
Solar: 587     ———————————————————   1934
Final fall of Jerusalem to Nebuchadnezzar                            election of Hitler
Solar: 587     —————————————————–         1934****
Fall of Judah & Jerusalem                                                  British mandate for Palestine
Liberating Israel from all Turkish rule.
* The “Era of Retribution” begins with the death of Louis XV and the ascension of Louis XVI on the same day. Followed a few years later by the French Revolution, which culminated in the loss temporal Papal power.  If we bisect this period (747BC – 1774AD) we arrive at 533AD and the decree of the Roman Emperor Justinian making the Bishop of Rome the head of all the “Holy Churches” and all the holy priests of God.
** 1844 The edict of Toleration stated “The Sublime Porte engages to take effectual measures to prevent henceforward the execution and putting to death of the Christian who is an apostate.  Henceforward neither shall Christianity be insulted in my dominions, nor shall Christians be in any way persecuted for their religion.”
*** During the reign of the last king of Judah (Zedekiah), in 587BC the last group of captives were taken to Babylon and Jerusalem fell.  Measuring from 587BC to 1860AD the Syrian Massacres occurred and brought in European intervention, which was the beginning of the end of the Ottoman Empire.   If we bisect the SEVEN TIMES or 1260 lunar years, we arrive at the capture of Jerusalem by Omar in 637AD.   
A few years later the Mosque of Omar or Dome of the Rock was built on the Temple site.
**** Measuring from 587BC the year Jerusalem fell, brings us to 1934AD the year of the British Mandate for Palestine. Liberating Israel from all Turkish rule 14 years later in 1948AD, Israel was free and independent.
Time, Times and a Half-time, or 1260 yrs
The Full Time of the Gentiles covers a period of 2520 years or seven times during which Israel Judah are dispersed among the nations and the Holy People are trodden down. [Lev 26; Dan 4:32; Ps 102:13, Rom 11:25-27]  
The beast kingdoms of Babylon, Medio-Persia, and Greece, give way to Rome, the fourth and terrifying beast.  With the entrance of Rome we have a complete description of the full times of the gentiles (3 1/2 times + 3 1/2 times = seven times) over God’s people until the complete destruction of the last beast.
In the year 605 BC the people of Judah first lost their independence and became subject to Babylon and Daniel was taken into captivity. [II Kings 24:10]   Now, from the first deportation in 605BC to the first edict by Cyrus in 536BC [Ezra 1:2], for the Israelites to go back into their land and rebuild Jerusalem, was a total of 70 years.   
The duration of the entire Babylonian Empire from Nabonassar in 747BC to its capture by Cyrus in 538BC was 210 years.  210 is divisible by 3 equal 70.  This means the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews occurred during the finale one third (or 70 years) of the Empires reign.  The 210 years is also seven prophetic months, 30 times 7 equals 210.  So ancient Babylon lasted seven such months.
Now John is taken into the throne room in heaven and sees the Lamb that was slain (Jesus Christ) opening the sealed scroll that finishes the prophecy and clearly identifies the last half of the seven times.  The description of Daniel’s fourth beast allows us a comparison with the characteristics of the beast out of the sea in The Revelation, in order to properly identify the beast out of the sea.  Both of these beasts describe the civil or political Roman Empire. Revelation explains that Spiritual Babylon will lasts six times as long [Rev 11:2; 13:5] as the Kingdom of Babylon lasted.  So that 6 times 7 equals 42 and 42 times 30 equal 1260 years.  During this second period of 1260 years, the symbolic temple (believers) is to be trodden under foot. (also ½ of the 2520 Times of the Gentiles or the seven times) (see; Approaching the End of the Age,  Guinness pg 413-415)  This means that two time-periods of 1260 years have been given to make up the total of 2520 years.  [Dan 12:7; Rev 11:3, Rev 12:6]
The first 1260 years covers the reign of the pagan empires of Babylon, Medio-Persia, Greece and The Roman Empire.  At the mid point of the seven times or 2520 years The Revelation describes the fall of the Roman Empire and its reappearance as the Kingdom of Iron (Rome civil) and Clay (Rome religious).  
This is the second half of the 2520 years and the second time-period of 1260 years.  The reign of the twin apostate horns of Daniel 7 and 8 are during this time-period.  They are given until the end of the Times of the Gentiles to plague God’s people.
Just as there were two Roman Empires, Eastern and Western, there are two different starting periods when figuring the bisecting period of the 2520 years.  This bisection era spanning 160 years is well marked by two unquestionable events; one event for each half of the Roman Empire.
Please Note: All lunar and sidereal years have been adjusted to solar years.

747BC                      +    1260 lunar years  =               476AD

Crowning of Nabonassar                                                                                          Fall of Rome (to the day deposition of Romulus Augustulus
602BC                                            +     1260 lunar years   =                        622AD
overthrow of                                                                                                     Hegira
Jehoiakim by Nebuchadnezzar                    (the beginning of the Mohammedan calendar)
587BC                                        1260 lunar years                                   637AD
Nebuchadnezzar’s destruction of Jerusalem       Omar/Saracen conquest of Jerusalem
Western Empire the beginning of the Times of the Gentiles to the demise of the Roman Empire, covers a period of 1260 years, the first period of time, times and a half-time (3 1/2 times). Papal Power arose dominating the second half of the seventimes or second period of time, times and a half-time. [Dan 12:7; Rev 11:3,  Rev 12:6]
1260 years of Papal Power
Western Empire
Solar: 533 AD   ———————————————————-  1793 AD
Edict of Justinian                                                                      Regicide and Reign of Terror
Lunar: 533      ———————————————————–     1755
Decree which made the                                                   Beginning of French Revolution
Bishop of Rome the head of the church               (1755 by lunar, 1774 by calendar, and 1793 by solar)
all important initial dates of the French Revolution.
Sidereal: 533      ———————————————————     1774
Accession of Louis XVI
Sidereal: 590      ———————————————————     1849
First Pope proper                                                           Pope loses temporal authority
Pope Gregory the Great Sept. 3                                    Feb 8th Roman Republic declaired
Solar: 607      ————————————————————     1867
Decree of Phocas                                                     Papal overthrow / Austria vs Prussia
Confirming the primacy of the see of Rome over all church            battle at Sadowa
3 great overthrows of Papal power
(1830 by lunar, 1848-49 by calendar, 1866-70  by solar)
Lunar: 607      ————————————————————     1830
Papal overthrow /  Abdication of Charles X
Sidereal: 607      ———————————————————-   1848-9
Papal overthrow / Revolution
Solar: 610      —————————————————————     1870
Emperor Phocas at Constantinople                                           Pope’s temporal power lost
conceding to the Pope
headship over all Christendom
Solar: 663      —————————————————————     1923
Laterizing decree of Vitalian                                                                        Mussolini
All church service shall be held in Latin
Eastern Empire
 From the beginning of the Times of the Gentiles to the rise of Islam, covers a period of 1260 or time, times and a half-time (3 1/2 times) or one half of the seven times. The second half of the seventimes or time, times and a half-time, 1260 years, brings us to the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the restoration of Israel to the Jews. [Dan 12:7; Rev 11:3, Rev 12:6]
1260 years of Mohammedan Power
Eastern Empire
Lunar: 622 AD ——————————————————- 1844 AD
Hegira                                             Ottomans compelled to stop / edict of religious toleration
Solar: 622     ———————————————————–   1882
1st settlement reestablished in Israel
Lunar: 637    ————————————————————   1859
Omar captures Jerusalem                                           Turkey proclamation of equal rights
Dome of the Rock was built on the Temple site
Solar: 637    ————————————————————–   1897
Turkey lost Crete to Britain
Sidereal: 637    ———————————————————– 1877-78
Berlin congruence
English Protectorate of Asia Minor
Time Set for the Desolation
And from the time that the continual burnt offering is taken away, and the abomination that makes desolate is set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.” Dan 12:11 believe, that in prophetic language, whenever the phrase abomination that makes desolate is used it means some kind of idol set up in the Temple.  
This is not so! 
In Daniel there are three different times that a variation of this phrase is used.
à  The first one in Dan 8:13-14 is concerning the little horn of the Greek Goat and can only be fulfilled by the Eastern Empire.  Therefore, we must look to the East for something that will trample (persecution) the host for 2300 years.  From the first Seleucid in 313BC to the end of the Ottoman Empire in 1919/20AD is 2300 lunar years.
à  The second, Dan 9:26-27, speaks of armies and is about the destruction of Jerusalem in 70AD.  This is the same desolation that Matt 24:15, Mark 13:14, and Luke 21:20 speak of.
Neither of these desolations speaks to a literal idol or icon that is set up in the Temple.   For one thing, after 70AD there is no Temple in which to set up an idol. 
The prophecy says that this desolation will take place for 1260 years plus 30 more years.  Yes is a pagan temple (Dome of the Rock) set up maybe on the site of the original Temple but there is no physical Temple there.  However, in the New Testament we are told that it is the believers who are the Temple of God and he will dwell, through His Spirit, in them.
The only abomination that has lasted for 1260 years, or 2520 years etc. is that abomination that has been set up in the hearts of man.  The Mystery Religion in the forms of pagan worship, the Roman Church, and Islam have permeated first Israel and then the True Church of God in such insidious ways that she does not even know it. She has become the vessel in which it continues to live on, until the Holy One returns and destroys it completely, once and for all.
à  Dan 12:11 is merely speaking to the second 1260 years of the seventimes and has added an additional 30 years for the abomination that has corrupted man’s heart and doctrine to retain some kind of authority.   Dan 12:12 says, “blessed is he who waits, and comes to the 1335 days”.  This is yet another additional time of 45 years.  Together there is a total of 75 years added to the 1260 years and the seventimes.
Let there be no mistake, there is no mention in Daniel 12 of what is to take place after the 2520 years, second 1260 years, and the additional 75 years.  Many have considered this a reference to the onset of a millennial reign or the Second Coming of Christ, but this cannot be.  It is only a time reference for the end of the abomination.  It does not say what comes next!
360 Years for the Angel’s Oath or in other words The Shiny Dude
The man clothed in linen, who was above the waters of the stream, raised his right hand and left hand toward heaven; and I heard him swear by him who lives forever that it would be for a time, two times, and half a time; and that when the shattering of the power of the holy people comes to an end all these things would be accomplished. 
I heard, but I did not understand. Then I said, “O my lord, what shall be the issue of these things?”   He said, “Go your way, Daniel, for the words are shut up and sealed until the time of the end.   
Many shall purify themselves, and make themselves white, and be refined; but the wicked shall do wickedly; and none of the wicked shall understand; but those who are wise shall understand.    And from the time that the continual burnt offering is taken away, and the abomination that makes desolate is set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.
Blessed is he who waits and comes to the thousand three hundred and thirty-five days.    But go your way till the end; and you shall rest, and shall stand in your allotted place at the end of the days.” Dan 12:7-14
Then I saw another mighty angel coming down from heaven, wrapped in a cloud, with a rainbow over his head, and his face was like the sun, and his legs like pillars of fire.   He had a little scroll open in his hand. And he set his right foot on the sea, and his left foot on the land, and called out with a loud voice, like a lion roaring; when he called out, the seven thunders sounded.
And when the seven thunders had sounded, I was about to write, but I heard a voice from heaven saying, “Seal up what the seven thunders have said, and do not write it down.”   And the angel whom I saw standing on sea and land lifted up his right hand to heaven and swore by him who forever and ever, who created heaven and what is in it, the earth and what is in it, and the sea and what is in it, that there should be no more delay, but that in the days of the trumpet call to be sounded by the seventh angel, the mystery of God, as he announced to his servants the prophets, should be fulfilled.”  
Rev 10:1-7 
It is evident that The Oath Taker in both references is the same, the Son of God Himself.  To Daniel it is announced; that the events which had just been predicted would occupy a time, times, and a half, and then the time of the Gentiles would be finished.   To John it is announced; after the Sixth Trumpet of judgment has been blown, and has failed to bring an apostate church to repentance, that not one single time remained.  After the Sixth Trumpet there is less than a “time” (360 yrs) left to complete the judgment of the Bowls.
360 Years, or final “time” of the Angel’s oath
1510AD ———————————————————- 1870AD
Luther teaches “the Just live by faith”             Independence of Italy / Papal Infallibility
First immigration of Jews to Palestine (see Zionists)
1517  —————————————————————-  1877
Luther’s  95 Thesis                                               A converted Jew, Samuel Schereschewsky
translated the Bible into Mandarin Chinese
1529   —————————————————————-   1889
Dicta (court) of Spires                                                               “The Ralliement”  *
1555   —————————————————————–   1915
Confession of Augsburg (religious freedom)                   World War I  Beginnings
1563AD —————————————————————- 1923AD
End of the Council of Trent                       Palestine mandate ratified by League of Nations
1572AD —————————————————————– 1932AD
St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre                                                Hitler’s election
1648AD —————————————————————— 2008AD
End of The Thirty Years’ War                                                                    Possible Seventieth Jubile
* General George Boulanger won a striking victory in Paris.  But he did not march on Elyse’e Palace, and made himself dictator.  He later died in exile.  The Boulanger fiasco was a blow to Monarchist and their ally, the Church of Rome.  Pope Leo XIII, discouraged by the failures of the monarchist, turned to a policy of reconciliation “The Ralliement”.  
This was motivated by the popes desire to secure French aid for the solution of the Roman question.